Arsip

Arsip Bulanan: Juli 2011

Change in ideas of knowledge in complex societies and the means by which such ideas are transmitted result from continual struggle among competing groups within society, each of which seeks domination or influence … Thus the forms of knowledge shaped and conveyed in education systems … must be considered in relation to the social distribution of power. Dale Eickelman (1978), “The Arts of Memory: Islamic Education and Its Social Reproduction”. Comparative Studies in Societies and History, pp. 485-516.

Introduction

Indonesia has a unique education system. In addition to secular education system, where most of the students enjoy their education, there also exists Islamic education system for some of Muslim children. Both mainstreams of education system are under the supervision of two different ministries. On the one hand, the secular schools from elementary to university levels are supervised by the Ministry of National Education (MONE). On the other hand, Islamic educational institutions for all levels are under the administration of the Ministry of Religious Affairs (MORA).[1] Given the two mainstreams of education, Indonesia is regarded by some as adopting dualistic education system.

The Islamic education system constitutes pivotal and inseparable part of national education system. Islamic educational institutions, throughout their history, have contributed significantly to the development of Indonesian education. Besides producing Muslim scholars, they have developed also Islamic tradition in Indonesia. In spite of these contributions, however, the Islamic education does not become the center in the development of national education system. The marginalization of Islamic education by the colonial administration, followed by the subsequent government of independent Indonesia, resulted in Islamic education being regarded as the second class of education system. Amid such a situation, however, the Islamic education system has gone through significant developments.

Following the collapse of Suharto regime in 1998, Islamic education system gained momentum to develop itself, as illustrated by the following indicators: First, the number of madrasah (Islamic school) and pesantren (Islamic boarding school) with modern management have grown progressively in big cities. Second, most of madrasahs and pesantrens have been recently trying to combine a balanced portion of both secular and Islamic knowledge. Third, there has emerged sekolah Islam (modern Islamic school), a new genre of Islamic education system in Indonesia. This kind of school, which constitutes the later development of madrasah and pesantren, has distinctive characteristics. As will be discussed later, sekolah Islam is under the jurisdiction of MONE, and it emphasizes practical Islamic learning.

Those developments have brought Islamic education system into a new atmosphere. Madrasah, pesantren, and sekolah Islam have not been considered as marginal education anymore. Recently, the three kinds of Islamic educational institutions become urban phenomena, and some of them being regarded “favorite schools” for Indonesian middle class Muslim community. This constitutes a new trend of Islamic education in Indonesia, which gains wide opportunity to develop following the reformation era.[2]

As far the recent development of Islamic education system in Indonesia is concerned, there are significant questions to discuss. The questions would be addressed not only to a number of factors which have made pesantrens and madrasahs still exist and keep improving, but also to matters concerning the issues on their ways to formulate their role amid the rapid changes which occur in Indonesia. Needless to say, Islamic education institutions have now been facing more complex challenges. In addition to bear a duty to produce Muslim scholars, they have to participate also in building social, political and cultural system of new Indonesia. Consequently, it is imperative to relate Islamic education system with such modern issues as democracy, civic values, civil society, good governance, and radicalism, especially within the context of new mapping of Islamic education system in Indonesia.

Escape from Dualistic System
As has been mentioned earlier, Indonesia adopts dualistic education system (Karel Steenbrink 1986: 1-9). On the one hand, Islamic education system, one of the two important education systems in Indonesia, is rooted in the tradition of Islamic learning, which has been practiced for centuries. Historically speaking, pesantren is considered the first Islamic educational institution in Indonesia. It is within this educational institution that such naqliyah knowledge as al-Qur’an, hadis, ‘ilm al-tawhid, fiqh, history of Prophet Muhammad., and mantiq (logics) are learned traditionally. Here, memorizing texts — especially texts of al- Qur’an, sunnah, and the works of ‘ulama —was the most common method in the learning process. However, in line with the gradually growing influence of Islamic revivalism movement in the beginning of 20th century, which began in the Middle East and followed by its subsequent spread to Indonesia, madrasah system began to be introduced by Indonesian reformist Muslims. For long time before independence, both pesantren and madrasah constituted two significant institutions in the context of Indonesian Islam. After independence, as has been discussed earlier, these two institutions have not only continued to exist but also gone through rapid development and become inseparable parts of national education system.

On the other hand, secular education system is rooted in the tradition of modern education brought to Indonesia by the Dutch colonial rule, which gradually introduced schools to indigenous people, especially aristocrat groups. In addition to teach secular courses and certain skills beneficial for worldly life, the Dutch schools also promised job offers for their alumni to become colonial government employees. Furthermore, they issued certificates for the graduates to prove that they have finished certain level of education or mastered certain skill.

This historical legacy has been maintained by Indonesian’s independent government. The Islamic education system has been accommodated by giving its management authority to MORA. Meanwhile, the management of secular education system has been entrusted to MONE. It is explicitly mentioned in the Law of Education and Learning System No. 4, 1950 — which was revoked by the Law No. 12, 1954 —, that “going to religious schools accredited by the Minister of Religious Affairs would be considered as completing compulsory education,”[3] the detailed regulation of which “will be regulated in separate law”[4].

Based on the above regulation, MORA has an authority to manage educational institutions from elementary to university levels, Raudlatul Athfal (RA or kindergarten), Madrasah Ibtidaiyah (MI or Elementary School ), Madrasah Tsanawiyah (MTs or Junior High School), Madrasah Aliyah (MA or Senior High School), and the State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN). Similarly, MONE has also a jurisdiction to supervise secular schools from Taman Kanak-kanak (TK or kindergarten), Sekolah Dasar (SD or Elementary School), Sekolah Menengah Pertama (SMP or Junior High School), Sekolah Menengah Umum (SMU or Senior High School), Sekolah Kejuruan (Vocational School), and University.

The positive impact of the dualism of education is that both national and Islamic educational systems have been competing to each other. However, the “rivalry” seemed to be unequal, since the government educational policy, until the end of the New Order, was more attentive to secular education and seemed to reduce the development of Islamic education. Accordingly, the Islamic education system, especially madrasah and pesantren, became marginal education system and considered frequently as “second class” education. This is because most of the Islamic educational institutions are privates. The majority of madrasah — around 80% of the total — are private schools, while pesantren are totally private institutions. Since they bear private status, most of the madrasahs have limited fund. Consequently, they cannot provide high quality of education.

Despite the high pressure by the New Order government, yet madrasah and pesantren remained exist. Moreover, some of them have even developed to become big institutions with good quality. A number of madrasahs and pesantrens, which will be discussed later, are not new institutions; they are old institutions, which have been struggling with all due forces to increase their quality of education. At the same time, the government policy towards education has gone through significant changes. The Law No. 20 of 2003 concerning National Education System puts madrasah and pesantren as integral parts of national education system. Regarding financial sources, the Law states that “it is a collective responsibility between central government, local authority, and society,” (article 46). It is also stated in the preceding article that “the governments (central and local) are fully responsible to finance compulsory education,” (article 36). The impact of these regulations toward madrasah is obvious, namely that Madrasah Ibtidaiyah and Madrasah Tsanawiyah in the context of their roles as the organizers of nine-year compulsory education would have the right to have full support from the government, regardless of whether they are public or private schools.[5]

At the conceptual level, those regulations have brought Indonesia out of dualistic educational system. Nevertheless, it is important to emphasize that education system in Indonesia has now been adopting “one roof” administration system. Indeed, MORA and MONE are still two different management of education in Indonesia. However, they gradually develop closer relationship and start to establish better cooperation than ever before.[6]

The Distinctive Characteristics of Pesantren and Madrasah
The development of Islam in Indonesia is inseparable from its Islamic education system, especially pesantren and madrasah. Both institutions have played pivotal role in determining the religiosity of Indonesian society. Not only do they function as the center for Islamic learning, but also constitute inherent part in the formation of socio-cultural and religious system of Indonesian Muslims. As far as the Indonesian Muslim intellectual discourse is concerned, both institutions have played significant role as centers for the publication of Islamic scholarly works in Indonesia.

Pesantren — with its other different names like pondok, dayah and meunasah — constitutes a model of traditional Islamic educational institution. An a>lim, or kyai, is the owner as well as the great teacher of pesantren. Most of the santri (students), both males and females, live in dormitory. Moreover, traditional Islamic knowledge, such as tafsi>r, h}adi>th, fiqh, and tas}awuf, are the main courses in pesantren. In addition, the learning process is conducted through traditional methods, without adopting grading and certification systems.

Unlike pesantren, madrasah in Indonesian context is a modern educational institution. The emergence of madrasah by the end of 19th century was a critique towards pesantren education system. As a critique, madrasah tried to offer a wider range of curriculum design, including Islamic and secular courses, besides adopting grading and certification systems.

The recent development of Islamic education in Indonesia has shown that the modern madrasah expands itself into pesantren. From the outset, the reformists Muslims have addressed their critique towards pesantren. Mahmud Yunus, for instance, a leading figure of Islamic education reform of the beginning of the 21st century criticized pesantren strongly by stating that “education system of traditional pesantren would only be able to produce one single ulama out of one hundred santris. The remaining 99 santris are merely contributors to purchase oil to prepare meals.” (Yunus, 1995: 58).

Apart from the critiques addressed by reformist Muslims, the pesantren community themselves have actually begun to realize the significance of education system reform in pesantren. By the end of 19th century, pesantren community began to develop modern education system by adopting madrasah (school) system. With this new system, learning process in pesantren is conducted through grading, curriculum, and examination systems. Moreover, it also adopted modern learning methodology. Meanwhile, texts of classical Islam in various fields of knowledge such as ‘ilm tafsir, ‘ilm h}adith, fiqh, usul al-fiqh, etc., remain studied in pesantren. Pesantren Tebuireng, Jombang, an old pesantren established in 1899 — to name an example — is among the earlier pesantrens which adopted madrasah education system. In its later development, Tebuireng also organized secular schools. Unsurprisingly thus, in Tebuireng we can find MTs and MA together with SMP and SMA. The education model developed by pesantren Tebuireng is now adopted by other pesantrens.

The expansion of modern madrasah system into pesantren continues to take place up to the present time. The data of MORA provides information to us that of the total number of pesantren (14,067), some of them operate MTs/SMP (27,8%), MI/SD (19,8%), and MA/SMA (16,7% ) (EMIS Data, MORA, 2002-2003). The impact of the expansion is that santris are now mostly going to formal education, and the number of those who are attending traditional education system in pesantren declines.

To some extent, madrasah has more advantages than secular school. First, madrasah possesses a strong root in community. This is because madrasahs are mostly established by community without any intervention of the government. People are donating their money voluntarily to support the necessities of madrasah. Second, given the voluntarily donation, financial issues in madrasah are relatively flexible in a sense that all the expenses of madrasah would depend on the real condition of the community earnings. Accordingly, a number of madrasahs in poor regions require a relatively cheap tuition fee for the students, while in few others it is more expensive.[7] Madrasah teachers are generally doing their jobs due to religious reasons as their dedication and devotion. Teachers in a number of madrasahs of remote villages sometimes are paid with minimum salary, yet they are committed to their profession. Unsurprisingly, despite the economic crisis in Indonesia, madrasah not only continues to exist, but also becomes an alternative education for a few groups of community. Third, due to the affordable tuition fee of madrasah, it is regarded as education institution which takes side with poor people. Fourth, in terms of the participation of female students, madrasah constitutes education institution supportive to gender equity. Fifth, madrasah is an educational institution which offers pious norms to the pupils. Madrasah students are generally not getting involved in a number of delinquency attitudes, such as fighting amongst students of different schools. Sixth, Indonesian madrasah is unique compared to similar educational institution in other Muslim countries, since the former gives a balanced portion between Islamic and secular knowledge.[8]

Map of Contemporary Islamic Education in Indonesia

According to data of MORA, there are about 14,067 pesantrens and 37,362 madrasahs throughout Indonesia[9]. The spread rate of pesantren in Indonesia depends on the density of Muslim population of a region and their religiosity. Accordingly, such regions with big Muslim population as East Java and Central Java have a big number of madrasahs and pesantrens. Indeed, these two regions are regarded as “santri regions”.

The figure of pesantren shows an increasing trend. The following data indicates the increasing number of pesantren along the years. In 1977 the number of pesantren was about 4.195 with approximately 677.384 students. The figure went through significant boost in 1981, in which the number of pesantren reached 5.661 with 938.397 students. Another boost happened in 1985, in which the number of pesantren was 6.239 with 1.084.801 students.­ Furthermore, the 1997 data of MORA recorded 9.388 pesantren with 1.770.768 students. Finally, as has been mentioned above, the figure increased sharply to become 14,067 pesantrens with 3,149,374 students.

The Islamic education system in Indonesia can be divided into a number of groups. First is pesantren group, including those which carry out madrasah and those which still maintain non-grading system. This group consists of modern and traditional pesantren. Second is madrasah group consisting of both public and private madrasahs. Third is Sekolah Islam group, which is regarded as a genre of modern Islamic education system of urban Muslim community. Each group will be discussed separately with an attempt to connect them to each other.

Modern Pesantren
As far as the history of Islamic education in Indonesia is concerned, modern pesantren can be regarded as new genre of pesantren. The Pesantren Darussalam of Gontor, Ponorogo, was established in 20 September 1926 by three brothers — KH. Ahmad Sahal, KH. Zainuddin Fannani, and KH. Imam Zarkasyi. This pesantren is also called pondok modern (modern pesantren), in a sense that it not only adopts madrasah system, but also teaches Arabic and English to the students intensively and practically. In daily conversation among the students within the pesantren, all santris are obliged to speak Arabic or English — they are not allowed to speak Indonesian. In addition, unlike the majority of other pesantrens, pondok modern Darussalam, Gontor includes the works of reformist Muslim thinkers in its curriculum. The works of Abduh, for instance, are placed as important subject matters in the pesantren.

The objective of Pesantren Gontor, as mentioned by Lance Castle (1966), is to produce kader Muslim (Muslim cadres) by combining the excellences of both traditional and modern pesantren education systems. In addition to secular subjects, the pesantren also urges the santris about the significance of art. Accordingly, music, sport and other extra-curricular activities are among the concerns of pesantren’s leaders. The pesantren is also intended to provide education capable of responding to Muslim challenges amid the socio-cultural life of Indonesian society which begin to enter modern world.

It is important to mention that Pesantren Gontor was established in the crucial period of Islamic development in Indonesia. Following the ethical politics implemented by the Dutch colonial administration, coupled with the establishment of international network with the center of Islamic reform in Cairo, Egypt, the Islamic education in Indonesia went through fundamental changes. This was marked by the establishment of new Islamic educational institutions, which adopt modern education system, instead of traditional education system of pesantren. The modern Islamic education institution — well-known as madrasah — then became an important part of Islamic reform movement during the early decades of 20th century.

Accordingly, in addition to introduce new system and instructional methods — ranging from adopting grading model with class division, employing text books as learning tools, to accommodating secular subjects in the curriculum — madrasah functioned also as a media for the dissemination of Islamic reform ideas. It became the basis to prepare new Muslim generations who are familiar with the spirit of modernism, an issue that at that time was an overwhelming discourse in Indonesia which started to enter modern world. Accordingly, kader Muslims to be produced by Pesantren Gontor are those who are frequently identified as “Muslim intellectuals”.

The self-definition of Pesantren Gontor as a modern pesantren, as has been mentioned, is basically aimed at attempting itself to be in contrast to traditional pesantren, which is to some extent identical to stagnancy of thought, and to ineffective as well as inefficient managerial system of education. Imam Zarkasyi, one of the founding fathers of Pesantren Gontor, is of the opinion that a modern pesantren should implement freedom of thought, effective and efficient management, and introduce santri toward modernity. Parallel to other reformist Muslim, he also invites Muslims not to be too fanatical towards a certain madhhab, since this would lead to the absence of the freedom of thought. Indeed, with regard to religious ritual practices, Pesantren Gontor is not fanatical to a certain madhhab.

As far as the relation of pesantren and modernism is concerned, the effective and efficient management are described that pesantren should adopt a good, accountable and transparent administration and accounting system. Moreover, the managerial system of modern pesantren relates to the leadership system of pesantren. In this regards, Pesantren Gontor from its inception came up with an idea of what is termed as badan wakaf, the highest body within pesantren in which discussion and decision making are conducted. Under the badan wakaf is badan pelaksana (organizing body) which is responsible of the daily affairs of the pesantren. On the other hand, the introduction of santris toward modernity is implemented by providing them with Arabic and English language skills, Boy Scout, skills, and sports — activities unusual for traditional pesantrens.

The manifestation of modern education of Pesantren Gontor can be seen from KMI (Kulliyatul Muallimin al-Islamiyah) system, i.e. a six-year secondary level of education (equal to SMP and SMU). In this respect, KMI constitutes a combination between madrasah and pesantren system. The decision to adopt this kind of education system was influenced by the school experiences of Imam Zarkasyi, from a pesantren in Solo, Thawalib of Padang Panjang in Sumatra, and Normal Islam School or also called Kulliyatul Muallimin al-Islamiyah. In addition, it is also important to note here his experience in establishing and being the director of Muhammadiyah Kweekschool in Padang Sidempuan. With all those experiences, Imam Zarkasyi then tried to combine pesantren and modern school. The KMI is a madrasah plus pesantren.

Thus, the concept of modern pesantren introduced by Imam Zarkasyi has become a blueprint and genre for the development of the next modern pesantren. Zarkasyi’s students who are now spreading all over Archipelago establish a number of similar pesantren pioneered by the kyai. During the period of 1970-80s, a couple of Gontor alumni established pesantrens in their own region. In Banten, Pesantren Daar El-Qalam was established in Gintung Balaraja; in Madura Pesantren Al-Amin was established in Prenduan Sumenep; in Central Java Pesantren Pabelan was established in Pabelan; Pesantren Modern Assalaam was established in Solo; and many others.[10] Those pesantrens are frequently called pesantren alumni (meaning the alumni of Gontor), the second generation which have influenced the model of other modern pesantrens in their later development.

It should be noted that in the course of its development, pesantren alumni are not always implementing the standardized model of Pesantren Gontor. The Modern Pesantren Assalaam, for example, has developed a different model. The full name of this pesantren is Pondok Pesantren Modern Islam (PPMI) Assalaam, located in Pabelan, Kartasura Sukoharjo, Central Java. At the outset, Pesantren Assalaam is a branch of Pesantren Ngruki, which will be discussed exclusively in this paper. In the beginning of 1980s, when Pesantren Ngruki began to operate, the capacity of the pesantren could not accommodate all the registered students because of an overwhelming interest of parents to send their children to Pesantren Ngruki. Consequently, a decision was made to find another location to accommodate the students. A spot in Pabelan village located in Kartasura was eventually chosen as location to establish a pesantren. The new pesantren was named Assalam. As a branch of Pesantren Ngruki, Pesantren Assalam received supports from Ngruki, including teaching staff.

In due course, Pesantren Assalam, which was established in 7 August 1982, has grown rapidly in terms of the number of students, even surpassing the number of students in Pesantren Ngruki itself. Approximately 2000 students have been registered in Assalam, while Ngruki has around 1500 students. The origin of learning system in Pesantren Assalam was an MDA (Madrasah Diniyah Awaliyah) which was conducted in the evenings. In 1982, to answer the request of neighboring community, a Madrasah Tsanawiyah was established by employing dormitory system. At this juncture, a pesantren system had begun to be introduced, in which students were studying extra courses, adopted from pesantren curriculum. A quite significant measure was taken by Assalam when it received a relatively spacious wakaf land (92,845 m2) from Abdullah Marzuki, a printing entrepreneur of PT Tiga Serangkai, Solo. Now, the property of Assalam is 10.223 ha lands, with 5.6 ha of them are wakaf lands.

At its very inception, the teaching staff of Assalam was supplied from Pesantren Ngruki and some of Gontor alumni who wanted to have teaching experience. Having been able to produce its own graduates, Pesantren Assalam then began to fulfill its own staff. However, the teachers, especially those who teach sciences, are from universities in Surakarta. There are some requirements for someone to be eligible to become teaching staff at Pesantren Assalam. In addition to the readiness of teaching relevant expertise, an applicant should understand the vision and mission of the pesantren. Furthermore, morality of the applicant is the most important aspect to consider in the recruitment process.

Assalam has developed as a big pesantren in Surakarta. This achievement is not only due to its consistency in implementing the concept of modern pesantren as has been introduced by K.H. Imam Zarkasyi, but also because of its attainment in developing modification for pragmatic needs. This can be seen in terms of curriculum and grading system. Although Assalam adopts Gontor’s curriculum, but it also implements national curriculum developed by MORA and MONE. As for grading or leveling system, Assalam implements its own system, i.e. Tsanawiyah (3 years), Aliyah (3 years), SMU (3 years) and Takhassusiyah (Tsanawiyah + Aliyah + 1 year).

The above grading system is actually out of the standardized grading model developed by Gontor, which implements the KMI system, in which Tsanawiyah and Aliyah are regarded as one single level, so that there is no graduation process from grade 3 to grade 4. This system has been maintained in Gontor up to the present time. As for curriculum, Gontor still implements the curriculum developed by K.H. Imam Zarkasyi some decades ago. Meanwhile, Assalam tries to modify curriculums developed by Gontor, MORA and MONE.

What has been performed by Pesantren Assalam is obviously contradictory to the principle embraced by K.H. Imam Zarkasyi, the founder of Pesantren Gontor. According to Zarkasyi a curriculum must be standardized, and should remain unchanged if necessary. He criticized the government policy which has changed national curriculum quite often. Once an educator is convinced that the curriculum he designed can be applied well, he has to implement the curriculum. However, it is worthy noted that by the time Gontor curriculum was developed, Zarkasyi was in a situation where curriculum standardization was not a national discourse. Now, his students face an era in which curriculum standardization is necessary to maintain quality of education. The adoption of national curriculum by pesantren alumni gained momentum in 1980s. Nevertheless, the characteristic of Pesantren Gontor which emphasizes Arabic and English languages is still maintained.[11]

Even though some of pesantren alumni have not been adopting Gontor curriculum anymore, few of them are still implementing the Gontor standardized model. Accordingly, there emerge terms: pure Gontor and non-pure Gontor. The pure Gontor is a term addressed to pesantrens which follow Gontor tradition per se. Meanwhile non-pure Gontor are those which, in addition to adopt Gontor’s curriculum, implement national and local curriculum. The emergence of terms pure Gontor and non-pure Gontor do not merely show the two variants of pondok modern, but sometimes they provoke conflict between pesantren alumni and Pesantren Gontor itself. Gontor desires pesantren alumni to imitate its model. Meanwhile, the later want to make modification and adjustment in line with community interests. Sometimes the conflict is more complex than merely a matter of curriculum and grading system, let alone pertaining social recognition and influence. Pesantren Al-Zaitun, located in Indramayu, West JAva, can be categorized as pesantren alumni. Panji Gumilang AS was the student of K.H. Imam Zarkasyi. Although Pesantren Zaitun was established few years ego, it has been going through so amazing development that provoked bad news and jealousy from other pesantren. It is informed that there is unharmonious relationship between Gontor and Zaitun, since they compete to gain influence and recognition from society.

There is another modification carried out by pesantren alumni, especially regarding Islamic ‘Aqi>dah course. Pesantren Gontor is considered not so strong enough in teaching ‘Aqidah that makes its alumni have various religious-ideologies. The Gontor alumni vary, ranging from a reformist Nurcholish Madjid, an intellectual who brought forth Islamic reform, to a conservative such as Kyai Khalil Ridwan, the leader of Pondok Pesantren Al-Husnayain. This phenomenon, according to Khalil Ridwan himself, who also the leader of BKSPP (Badan Kerjasama antar Pondok Pesantren) — a forum for Gontor alumni — is resulting from limited education of ‘Aqi>dah in Gontor so that santri experience ideological disorientation.

One thing to be kept in mind in discussing Pesantren Gontor and pesantren alumni is their contribution in establishing new foundation for the development of pesantren in Indonesia. Moreover, the modern education system of Gontor at the same time also introduced santri towards some principles of modernity. Besides various facilities, there are a number of significant aspects which can be regarded as being supportive to the implementation of modern principles, which can be taken from the courses in pesantren, especially fiqh, us}u>l al-fiqh, al-adya>n (comparative religion)[12], and Civics. These courses are potential to socialize the values of pluralism, because they admit diversity both in the idea and practical levels. It is the recognition of the existing different opinion that in turn leads the santris to have tolerant attitude, one of the significant values of modernity.

Sekolah Islam
Sekolah Islam (Islamic School) constitutes a new nomenclature of the 20th century Islamic education system in Indonesia. Similar to modern pesantren, sekolah Islam is also a critique towards madrasah. Although madrasah was initially a symbol of education reform, but in its eventual development it is considered insufficient to be regarded as Islamic educational institution. This stand point especially emerges from middle-class Muslim community, who genealogically have an attachment with Muhammadiyah, a modernist Islamic movement in Indonesia. The idea of sekolah Islam cannot be separated from the idea of Muhammadiyah, which has an objective to develop “HIS met de Qur’a>n”.

Sekolah Islam gained its momentum to develop when Indonesian community experienced what the so-called santrinization and Islamization, especially in the late 1990s. The establishment of the Association of Indonesian Muslim Intellectuals (ICMI), which obtained political support from the government, has become the second pillar of the growth of Sekolah Islam in Indonesia. Support towards sekolah Islam came from new generation of Indonesian Muslim. They are mostly alumni of secular universities, who possess good jobs — so that they can be considered as middle-class Muslim — nonetheless they have high religious awareness in line with their level of education which let them to be capable of accessing media of information about Islamic world in general. Most of them are activists of Islamic movements which use campus mosques as their basis, such as Salman mosque at ITB in Bandung, Arif Rahman Hakim mosque at UI Jakarta, Syuhada mosque in Yogyakarta etc. Their idols are Muslim intellectuals such as Imaduddin Abdurrahim, a significant figure in the process of cultivating cadres in Salman mosque, and an initiator of the establishment of ICMI. Both the education and religious experiences had made them aware of the need towards Islamic school other than madrasah. They wanted their kids to be able to enjoy good education in science and technology, but at the same time they want them to become religious people.

Sekolah Islam is under the supervision of MONE. The term ‘sekolah’ itself is employed to avoid the institution being under the supervision of MORA. Unlike other schools in general, sekolah Islam offers religious education in a significant portion, in addition to secular subjects. The difference between sekolah Islam and madrasah or pesantren lies on its emphasis to the practical aspect of religious education. On the one hand, madrasah and pesantren emphasize specific Islamic knowledge, such as ‘ilm al-h}adi>th, ‘ilm al-tafsi>r, fiqh etc. — besides such secular knowledge as mathematics, economics, natural and social sciences. On the other hand, sekolah Islam emphasizes more to the daily religious practices; it is intended to produce Muslim students who possess religious personality. In this regard, Islam is not emphasized on its cognitive aspect, rather in its practical one. Religion, hence, should be transformed to be social ethics.

Sekolah Islam enjoys modern facilities due to financial supports from urban middle-class Muslims. In sekolah Islam students may enjoy air-conditioned rooms, library, sport facilities, laboratory, computer, internet, and — of course — a well organized teaching-learning system, including extra-curricular activities. The sekolah Islam is administered by professionals, either in managerial aspect and curriculum development. Teachers, manager and administration staff are recruited through a very competitive selection process. In addition, they are mostly graduates of well-known universities in Indonesia. The competitive selection happens also in the student admission process. Consequently, the tuition fee in sekolah Islam is far more expensive that that in madrasah and secular schools in general.

Sekolah Islam Al-Azhar, or often called Al-Azhar Islamic School, is one of well-known sekolah Islam. Not only does it constitute the oldest sekolah Islam, but also it has branches in a number of big cities in Indonesia. Al-Azhar was established in 1960s by a Muhammadiyah figure, Haji Abdul Malik Karim Amrullah, well-known as Prof. Dr. Hamka, who was the leader of MUI (Majelis Ulama Indonesia). It is obvious that the establishment of al-Azhar has something to do with the idea of Muhammadiyah about “HIS met de Qur’a>n.” In its subsequent development, under the flag of Yayasan Pesantren Islam (YPI, or Islamic Boarding School Foundation), al-Azhar went through rapid growth during the last three decades. Its branches can be found not only in Jakarta and neighboring cities, but also in Cirebon and Sukabumi in West Java, Surabaya, even in Padang, West Sumatra.

Sekolah Islam Al-Azhar Jakarta is located in Kebayoran Baru, an area which is not only strategic, but also symbolizes the middle-class community. It offers different levels of education from kindergarten to senior high school. During the last five years, the Yayasan (foundation) have been developing Universitas al-Azhar Indonesia (UAI) headed by Professor Ir. Zuhal, M.Sc., the former Minister of Research and Technology during Habibie’s administration era.

During almost three decades after the establishment of Sekolah Islam al-Azhar there was practically no more Sekolah Islam to be established in Indonesia. It was only in 1990s, as has been mentioned, that a number of sekolah Islam appeared in many places, such as Sekolah Madania. This school is under the umbrella of Madania foundation, which obviously shows its relationship with Paramadina, an institute pioneered by Nurcholish Madjid. Paramadina itself is a forum of study for educated middle-class Muslims. The forum usually conducts religious discussion in a number of star-hotels in Jakarta.

Located in the outskirts of Jakarta — to be exact in Parung, West Java — Sekolah Madania manages a boarding school system. This constitutes an attempt to adopt pesantren system in organizing its education process. In line with the grand idea of Paramadina, Sekolah Madania promotes pluralism and multiculturalism. Consequently, it also enrolls non-Muslim students. Indeed, in spite of the limited number of non-Muslim students enrolled, Sekolah Madania is the first Islamic educational institution that pioneers pluralism and multiculturalism. In general, Sekolah Madania emphasizes character building of the students with a set of knowledge and skills as a response toward globalization.

While the initiators of Sekolah Al-Azhar and Paramidina came from intellectual Muslim with strong Islamic education background, the initiators of SMA Insan Cendekia, which locates in Serpong, Banten, come from educated Muslims with secular education background. The school was established in 1996, owing to the initiation of a group of scientists who worked in BPPT (Badan Pengkajian, Pengembangan, dan Penerapan Teknologi), a body under the Ministry of Research and Technology, which for a couple of decades had been led by BJ. Habibie, the former President of the Republic of Indonesia and general chairman of ICMI.

SMA Insan Cendikia aims at producing Muslim scientists who have understanding of both secular and Islamic knowledge. The following jargon says “the combination of Iptek (ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi, or knowledge and technology) and Imtaq (iman dan taqwa, or faith and piety),” which was popularized by BJ. Habibie himself constitutes significant basis for the development of SMA Insan Cendekia. In order to develop its curriculum, the school establishes communication with ITB (Institut Teknologi Bandung), IPB (Institut Pertanian Bogor), and the BPPT itself. By adopting boarding school system, like Sekolah Madania, the institution has an advantage of having scholarship network with Germany for their alumni. Lately, after Habibie began to lose his “influence” in BPPT, the management of the school is entrusted to MORA. However, this institution still maintains, to a large extent, its identity as Sekolah Islam with aforementioned characters.

Sekolah Islam can also be found outside Java. Of the most famous among them is Sekolah Serambi Mekkah in West Sumatra. Not only does it represent a model of Sekolah Islam, but it also develops a sort of religious attitudes which can be found in the member of pengajian kampus (in-campus religious learning) which politically become the basis of the constituents of Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS, or Prosperous Justice Party). The luxurious complex of Perguruan Serambi Makkah: Islamic Boarding School is located in the outskirts of Padang Panjang city. Inside the complex, students, both male and female, do their learning activities everyday. They live there twenty four hours a day. In order to be able to study maximally, the management provides services, including laundry and cookery. Furthermore, there is a kiosk inside the complex in which santri can find their daily necessities, so that they do not need to go out of complex.

Sekolah Serambi Mekkah implements a curriculum adopted from MONE for secular courses and from MORA for religious courses, with a few adjustments to be fit with pesantren life. For secular courses, the entire curriculum of MONE is taught in the school, but its proportion is only 70% of the total curriculum, while the remaining 30% is the curriculum of MORA. With such a composition, this school is able not only to teach the entire courses developed by MONE, but also to teach religious courses even in more detail, such as h}di>th, ta>ri>kh, fiqh, imla>, Arabic, al-Qur’a>n, etc. The leader of the school and the teaching staff said that they have been still seeking an ideal composition of curriculum for Serambi Makkah. By implementing boarding school system, they have more extra hours to spend with additional courses. It is during these extra hours that religious courses are educated. In this regard, the pesantren has an opportunity to teach religious courses so intensively that the nuance of pesantren can be felt quite strongly.

Similar to SMA students in general, the male students of SMA Boarding School Serambi Makkah wear uniform of short-sleeves white shirt and grey pantaloons. But the female students wear long-sleeves shirt, long skirt, and veil. Although not quite clear, attributes of neo-salafi group can be seen in the school. For example, the teachers wear baju koko (long-sleeves collarless shirt) and gamis (robe). Furthermore, male teachers let their beard grows. Title usta>dz is attributed to male teacher, while female teacher is called umi. Another attribute is separation between male and female during teaching-learning process, prayer in the mosque, and in student organization. In addition, extracurricular activities are organized in such a way to avoid direct contact and interaction between male and female students. Moreover, they employ scripturalistic approach in understanding religious teachings.

Although the institution is very popular in Padang Panjang city even in West Sumatra, mainly because of its luxurious complex, only a small percentage of the students come from the city. Most of the students are from other regions outside West Sumatra, like Palembang, Bengkulu, and Jambi. There is a balanced composition in number between male and female students. All the students live in dormitory 24 hours a day. The students are not allowed to leave the complex. In this regard, there is an agreement between the leader of Serambi Makkah and parent which states that only one family member of the students is permitted to bring the student home during semester break. The name of the appointed family member, called wali, is registered during the enrolment process. Outside the break session students are also permitted to leave the complex only if accompanied by the wali. However, they are not allowed to leave the town.

The above explanation shows a number of variants of sekolah Islam in Indonesia. Although its emergence was in the course of the rise of religious ghi>rah (enthusiasm) among Muslim society, but sekolah Islam vary in terms of religious ideology affiliation. It depends on the figures or religious group who become the initiators. Sekolah Islam Al-Azhar seems to be affiliated to Muhammadiyah’s ideology, and Madania is in line with Islamic neo-modernism. Meanwhile, Serambi Mekkah is close to the ideology of neo-salafi. The number of variants could be more than three, since Sekolah Islam has now been growing in number in big cities throughout Indonesia.

Public Madrasah: Islamic Education by State

The number of madrasah negeri (public Islamic school) is 7,227, representing only approximately 20% of the total number of madrasah throughout Indonesia. The management of public madrasah is under MORA’s responsibility, including building, other facilities, teaching staff, books, and salary. Public madrasah constitutes a medium employed by the government to disseminate national curriculum. In this respect, private madrasahs administered by foundations and socio-religious organizations are obliged to refer to public schools in terms of their curriculum arrangement. To some extent, public schools become role-models for private schools.

The 1994-1995 data of MONE records 149,646 public and private elementary schools (Sekolah Dasar or SD), which enroll 26.200.023 students. While in junior secondary level (Sekolah Menengah Pertama or SMP) the number is 19.442 with 6.392.417 students. On the other hand, MORA supervises 24.232 Islamic elementary schools (Madrasah Ibtidaiyah or MI), consisting of public (607) and private (23.625) madrasahs, both of which enroll 3.521.836 students. Meanwhile, at junior secondary level (Madrasah Tsanawiyah or MTs), the data of MORA report that there are 8.129 (582 public and 7.547 private) schools, which enroll 1.353.229 students. These above reports confirm the significance of madrasah and MORA in education, let alone the development of Islam in Indonesia.

As far as the modernization of Islamic education in Indonesia is concerned, public Islamic schools have gone through interesting development. Although still emphasizing on religious courses in certain fields, the bigger portion is given to secular courses, especially in madrasah negeri. The process began in 1970s when MORA was led by Mukti Ali (1923-2004). By then, MORA attempted intensively to make madrasah to become part of national education. An intensive negotiation between MORA and other related departments resulted in the issuance of a Joint Decree (Surat Keputusan Bersama or SKB) between Minister of Religious Affairs, Minister of Education and Culture, and Minister of Home Affairs — well-known as SKB Tiga Menteri — No. 6, 1975 and No. 037/U/1975. It is by the issuance of the Decree that the position of madrasah began to be recognized as the same level as secular schools administered by MONE. It should be noted that according to the Law No. 4, 1950, the grading system of madrasah is the same as that in secular schools. Accordingly, Madrasah Ibtidaiyah (MI), Madrasah Tsanawiyah (MTs) and Madrasah Aliyah (MA) are respectively the same levels as Sekolah Dasar (SD), Sekolah Menengah Pertama (SMP) and Sekolah Menengah Umum (SMU).

The SKB stipulates three points: (1) the graduate certificate of madrasah of all levels would be recognized equally to those of secular school; and (2) madrasah graduates are eligible to continue their study in secular schools. These two points have changed the substantial status of madrasah. Madrasah graduates have now equal opportunity with their counterpart from secular schools to be registered in secular schools, and vise versa. However, in order to be equal to secular school, madrasah should carry out point (3), i.e. that the curriculum of madrasah should consist of 70% secular courses and 30% religious courses.

It is due to the third point that a bitter critique was aroused from Muslim community. In this respect, Mukti Ali, a figure behind the SKB, became the target of the critique and even anger. As shown by Munhanif (1999: 314-315), Mukti Ali was accused to destroy Islamic education institution, which rooted in Indonesian Islam. However, the idea of SKB Tiga Menteri was eventually accepted, since it contributes significantly towards the development of madrasah. By the SKB, MORA started to rearrange the madrasah, such as transforming a number of madrasah to belong officially to MORA, or to become public madrasah. Although the number of public madrasah is still limited and far less than that of secular school, but the issuance of the SKB shows that MORA have made a significant political measures. From then on, a number of madrasahs have received subsidy, a financial support from the government that previously has only been enjoyed by secular school under MONE.

The integration process of madrasah into national education system gained momentum in 1989 with the issuance of Education Law No. 2 of 1989, concerning National Education System (UUSPN). The issuance of the Law was monumental for the development of madrasah. Through this Law, the position of madrasah and Islamic educational institutions in general was reaffirmed as inherent part of national education system. Accordingly, madrasah bears the responsibility to participate in completing the nine-year compulsory education. In addition, the Law asserts that religion becomes compulsory course that should be taught in schools from elementary to university levels.

Those developments have made public madrasah regarded as great achievement by MORA, but a few Muslim groups are not satisfied with them. For MORA, public madrasah, by adopting the combination of both secular and religious courses, is an ideal form of Islamic educational institution in Indonesia. The modernization of Muslim community, especially in rural areas, would only be possible through public madrasah. Moreover, the institution plays significant role in defending and maintaining Islamic values among Muslim community. However, pesantren community regards public madrasah as being too secular, making it incapable of producing Muslim cadres, let alone ulama>’. Moreover, other Muslim group is of an opinion that public madrasah is not able to fulfill their aspiration to produce Muslims who master Iptek and Imtaq at the same time.

Apart from the critiques, public madrasah has played pivotal role in the development of madrasah in Indonesia. It is through public madrasah that MORA is able to execute national curriculum standardization, so that the quality assurance of education in madrasah can be implemented. In addition, public madrasah is also a medium for the government to communicate and disseminate national educational policies. Moreover, it becomes the role-model of the modernization of madrasah in Indonesia. By cluster system approach, public madrasahs have become references for private madrasahs in managing their education programs.

Maintaining Traditional Learning Method: Pesantrens within NU Traditions

As has been mentioned above, there are some traditional pesantrens, especially those developed within NU tradition, which adopt modern educational system although they do not have any organizational ties with NU. In maintaining their traditional educational system, some pesantrens in Java have initiated to adopt the madrasah system. In this respect, pesantren Tebuireng in Jombang, East Java, is a case in point. Founded by Kyai Hasyim Asy’ari (1871-1947), a well known Javanese ulama of the 20th century, the pesantren becomes a model for other pesantrens as well as the ulamas in Java. Indeed, the majority of well-known and respected pesantrens in Java are founded by the pupils of Kyai Hasyim Asy’ari. It is not surprising then to see that those pesantrens follow Tebuireng model of teaching and learning. This phenomenon is understandable, since Hasyim Asy’ari was considered a Hadratus Syaikh (the prime ulama), who possessed a central role in the tradition of ulama scholarship in Java especially with the foundation of Nahdlatul Ulama in 1926.

Tebuireng, however, is not the only pesantren which has reformed its educational system. Pesantren Krapyak in Yogyakarta is another pesantren which has done similar attempt to reform its educational system. Kyai Ali Maksum (1915-1989), the head of pesantren Krapyak, was known as a modernist ulama. He also integrated madrasah system into pesantren which later became the main teaching and learning activities in pesantren. In addition, it is important to mention the other two pesantrens which have conducted educational reform by adopting madrasah system into pesantren, and by including non-Islamic subjects into pesantren curriculum. The two pesantrens under discussion are Pesantren Tambak Beras lead by Kyai Hasbullah and Pesantren Rejoso in Jombang headed by Kyai Tamim, both of which are located in East Java.

Following socio-religious changes, modernization and Islamic reform, Islamic education reform has become common discourse during the 20th century Islam in Indonesia. The ulama of pesantrens, who are known as the preservers of traditions, have started to change the traditional system of education and adopted the modern system, i.e., madrasah. In accordance with that shift, the goal of education itself changed. In this respect, Pesantren Tebuireng is a case in point. Instead of merely educating the future ‘ulamas, the goal of teaching and learning in Pesantren Tebuireng, as stated by Zamakhsyari Dhofier, is directed towards wider aims, namely to educate and to prepare the students of the pesantren to become ulama-intellectual (ulama who master non-Islamic knowledge) and intellectual-ulama (intellectuals in non-Islamic knowledge who master Islamic knowledge). This goal is in line with that of modernist Muslims whose aim of education is also to create “intellectual Muslims.”

In spite of differences of religious understanding between the ulama of pesantren and the reformists, yet they agree on one thing, i.e., the goal of educational system. Both groups of traditionalists and modernists pay serious attention to the reformation of Islamic educational system. In this context, both of them made similar efforts to create modern Muslims. Accordingly, madrasah has become a more widely acceptable system within Indonesian Muslims which is, later on, developed to be an established model within Islamic educational system in Indonesia. Furthermore, it is through these educational institutions that the socio-religious Islamic organizations in Indonesia have made their significant contribution to the Indonesian communities.

Non-Javanese Experiences

As has been mentioned above, a big number of traditional pesantrens are located found in Java, especially East and Central Java, and only a few are located outside Java. However, a number of traditional pesantrens are also to be found outside Java. The followings are the description of traditional pesantrens under discussion, such as pesantren Tarbiyah Islamiyah in West Sumatera, pesantren Assyadiyah in South Sulawesi and pesantren Nahdlatul Wathan (NW) in West Nusa Tenggara.

Pesantren Tarbiyah Islamiyah, West Sumatera
Pesantren Tarbiyah Islamiyah, located in Ampek Angkek, Candung, Bukit Tinggi, was established in 1908 (1307 H) by Angke Mudo Muhammad Rasul. At its very inception, the pesantren was called Surau Tangah or also named as Surau Baru Candung. Similar to other surau at that time, Surau Tangah functioned as the center for the development of Islamic teachings. The teaching and learning method employed by the surau was halaqah, a teaching method in which all the students of all ages learn directly from the kyai, since grading (leveling) system was not recognized. Indeed, Syeikh Sulaiman Arrasuli (1978-1970) — the son of Angku Mudo Muhammad Rasul and the second leader — was known as one of pesantren leaders who opposed and the criticized grading system. On May 5th 1928, with the suggestion of Syeikh Muhammad Abas and Sultan Dt Rajo Sampono, Syeikh Sulaiman Arrasuli finally decided to change halaqah system in pesantren Candung into madrasah system, a system which has been adopted by the younger generations. This madrasah is the seed of the current Tarbiyah Islamiyyah.

Having been going through long process, Tarbiyah Islamiyah applied full grading system in the early 1980s. Furthermore, it has applied the curriculum of the Ministry of Religious Affaires for MTsN and MAN since 1984. However, the new adopted curriculum was regarded too simple for the salafiyah (traditional) pesantren of Candung. Thus, the nomenclature of religious subjects is developed and deepened. The text books published by the Ministry of Religious Affaires on religious subjects are not used. Instead, the classical Arabic texts or called as “kitab kuning” are employed as textbooks in the teaching and learning in the pesantren. This may be seen as a strategy of pesantren communities to maintain their identities in the midst of globalization era.

In due course, Tarbiyah Islamiyah became more opened to the outsiders. The Tarbiyah then developed cooperation with various parties such as government and international funding institutions. In 1981/1982 the Tarbiyah developed cooperation with the Ministry of Religious Affairs to hold training for motivation and Classical Arabic textbooks teaching and to add their library collections. In 1982/1983 the Tarbiyah received other supports from MORA such as carpenter tools, sewing machines, welding tools and workshops to increase the skill of the students. Furthermore, the Tarbiyah also received other fund from Islamic Development Bank (IDB) through the Ministry of Religious Affairs.

Although frequently affirming themselves as politically neutral, it is beyond doubt that the political inclination of pesantrens under Persatuan Tarbiyah Islamiyah is twofold. It is said that when they are called as “Persatuan Tarbiyah Islamiyah”, it means that they are affiliated to Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP, or Development Union Party), while those affiliated to GOLKAR (functional group) are called as “Tarbiyah Islamiyah”. It is important to mention, however, that both parties in fact have tried to attract the same constituents i.e., the students and the heads of pesantrens under Persatuan Tarbiyah Islamiyah (PERTI) organization. The alumni of pesantren Perti are spread out all over Indonesia, even in Malaysia, and they still maintain good communication and relationship among themselves.

Pesantren As’adiyah, South Sulawesi
The great mosque of Pesantren As’adiyah stands elegantly in Sengkang city, Wajo, South Sulawesi. The pesantren was founded in 1930 by K.H. Muhammad As’ad and located about 200 km from the central city of Makassar. It is interesting to note here that before the establishment of pesantren As’adiyah, most of the influential Islamic educational institutions in Sengkang were founded by Muhammadiyah and, hence, adopted modernist values. Similar to other Muhammadiyah schools, those educational institutions in Wajo were based on the concept of “HIS met de Qur’a>n”.

Muhammadiyah began to have influence in South Sulawesi in 1926, pioneered by H. Mansyur al Yamani, an Arab entrepreneur who once stayed in Yogyakarta. Two years later, in 1928, the influence of Muhammadiyah reached Wajo, and from then on its influence has become wider. It was one year later, in 1929, that the first Muhammadiyah conference in South Sulawesi was held in Sengkang, Wajo. During the conference, the strategy of education of Muhammadiyah schools was formulated and it gained momentum to be more developed in Sengkang, Wajo.

Muhammadiyah paid special attention to religious attitudes of Wajo community at that time. As an organization with modern and reformist characteristics, Muhammadiyah viewed that there were some religious attitudes of Wajo community that may be categorized as bid‘ah and khurafat, the attitudes that follow the beliefs of their ancestors such as maintaining sangkang, a place to worship the soul of their ancestors, or adongkokeng tradition, a belief that the soul of their ancestors may re-enacted to the kids which cause them sick. In facing this kind of religious phenomenon, Muhammadiyah inclined to show non-compromistic attitudes and tried to eliminate those attitudes of the community. That was exactly what happened in Wajo.

The rapid development of Muhammadiyah became a factor for the revival of the traditional ulamas. They tried very hard to establish traditional Islamic educational institutions. In this context, the role of K.H. Muhammad As’ad becomes significant. With the suggestions from several ulamas in Wajo who visited him in Makkah when they performed hajj (pilgrimage), K.H. Muhammad As’ad, who stayed and studied in Makkah at that time, then established an Islamic traditional educational institution in 1930 as the pioneer for the foundation of pesantren As’adiyah.

The efforts of K.H. Muhammad As’ad to initiate the establishment of traditional pesantren received supports from Matoa Wajo and his relatives who viewed from the beginning that the educational institutions developed by Muhammadiyah did not accommodate local cultures. According to the King of Wajo, the efforts of K.H. Muhammad As’ad will create a balance to what Muhammadiyah had done in the community. It was expected that the traditional educational institutions will be more accommodative to the local traditions of the community.

In May 1930, Madrasatul Arabiyatul Islamiyyah (MAI) was founded. From the outset, MAI applied pesantren model which fully taught tafsir (Qur’a>nic Exegesis), tauhid (Islamic Theology), fiqh (Islamic Law), akhlaq (Ethics), tasawuf (Islamic Mysticism) and Arabic language. The method of teaching and learning is called mangaji tudang (halaqah system), in which a religious teacher holds learning gathering at his home attended by some people who came from Sengkang as well as other villages in Wajo.

In 1931, MAI initiated to have formal educational system which was divided into two levels, i.e. Madrasah Ibtidaiyah and Madrasah Tsanawiyah. Additionally, there was special class for cadres of ulama signed up by senior students who were considered to be potential to be the head of pesantrens. The curriculum of the pesantren was developed by K.H Muhammad As’ad himself and consists of 100% religious subjects. The percentage of religious subject adopted by the pesantren may be seen from two perspectives; first, the religious situation of the community in Sengkang forced him to teach religious subjects as much as possible; second, the increasing tension between religious schools founded by religious figures and public schools held by the colonial government which resulted in the rejection of religious schools to include non-religious subjects into their curriculum. This measure was taken to avoid colonial-bias.

The shift in curriculum and orientation of MAI began to take place in 1953, a year after K.H. Muhammad As’ad passed away. With the suggestion of the new head of the pesantren, K.H. Daud Ismail, MAI was altered into Pesantren As’adiyah. It is clear that the new name was taken from the name of K.H. Muhammad As’ad, to honor him as the founder of that Islamic institution.

It was under the leadership of K.H. Daud Ismail that the modernization of pesantren began. Pesantren was not managed as a private institution owned by kyai. Instead, it was administered by a yayasan (foundation), which has formulated its regulations to run the pesantren and to be regularly evaluated in the conferences. Pesantren As’adiyah is distinctive from other similar institutions for its organizational structure, which consists of Central Board (PB), the highest rank in the structure of the pesantren. It is under the Board that As’adiyah foundation organizes its learning mechanism either in schools, madrasahs or pesantrens.

The second generation of pesantren As’adiyah realized that they have to face challenges different from those of the first generation of K.H. Muhammad As’ad. Thus, in 1956 pesantren As’adiyah opened another new model of school, i.e., Madrasah Menengah Pertama (MMP, or Islamic Junior High School) and Madrasah Menengah Atas (MMA, or Islamic Senior High School) in 1959. The two schools are different from the existing schools such as Madrasah Ibtidaiyah and Madrasah Tsanawiyah. The new model of schools adopted 60% of religious subjects and 40% of non-religious subjects such as Indonesian language, English, economics, geography, math, natural sciences etc.

The new trend to develop the more opened model of pesantren, which accommodates non-religious knowledge has been continuing for generations. Under the leadership of K.H.M. Yunus Martan (1961-1986), for example, the pesantren offered another new program, i.e., six-year training program for religious teachers. Furthermore, it was during this period that pesantren As’adiyah opened other educational institutions such as kindergarten, primary school and As’adiyah Islamic University.

Pesantren As’adiyah, therefore, may be viewed as representative of pesantren salaf (traditional pesantren) which is accommodative to the new changes and development surrounding it. One may say that the following proverb” almuhafazah ‘ala al qadim al salih wa al akh zu bi al jadid al aslah” (Preserving the good existing order and adopting the new one which is better) is an appropriate expression to describe the characteristics and inclinations of Pesantren As’adiyah.

Continue Here.. New Trend of Islamic Education in Indonesia [Part II]
Resource

DEFINISI PUASA
Secara bahasa, puasa (ash shiyam) dalam bahasa Arab artinya menahan diri, seperti tersebut dalam firman Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala :

“Aku telah bernadzar kepada Allah untuk menahan diri (dari berbicara)”.[Maryam : 26].

Adapun secara istilah syar’i ialah, menahan diri dari hal-hal yang membatalkannya sejak terbit fajar sampai terbenam matahari dengan disertai niat.

AMALAN-AMALAN YANG BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN PUASA
1. Niat.
Jika telah masuk bulan Ramadhan, wajib bagi setiap muslim untuk berniat puasa pada malam harinya, karena Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam bersabda :

مَنْ لَمْ يُجْمِعْ الصِّيَامَ قَبْلَ اْلفَجْرِ فَلاَ صِيَامَ لَهُ

“Barangsiapa yang tidak berniat puasa sebelum fajar, maka tiada baginya puasa itu”. [Riwayat Abu Dawud, Ibnu Khuzaimah, dan Al Baihaqi, dari Hafshah binti Umar]

Berniat puasa pada malam hari, ini khusus untuk puasa wajib saja.

2. Qiyam Ramadhan.
a. Qiyam Ramadhan Disyariatkan Dengan Berjamaah.
Dalam melaksanakan qiyam Ramadhan (shalat tarawih) disyariatkan berjamaah. Bahkan berjamaah itu lebih utama dibandingkan mengerjakannya sendirian, karena Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam telah melakukan hal tersebut dan menjelaskan keutamaannya. Tersebut dalam hadits Abu Dzar:

صُمْنَا مَعَ رَسُولِ الهِd صَلَّى الهُa عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ رَمَضَانَ فَلَمْ يُصَلِّ بِنَا حَتَّى بَقِيَ سَبْعٌ مِنْ الشَّهْرِ فَقَامَ بِنَا حَتَّى ذَهَبَ ثُلُثُ اللَّيْلِ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَقُمْ بِنَا فِي السَّادِسَةِ وَقَامَ بِنَا فِي الْخَامِسَةِ حَتَّى ذَهَبَ شَطْرُ اللَّيْلِ فَقُلْنَا لَهُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ لَوْ نَفَّلْتَنَا بَقِيَّةَ لَيْلَتِنَا هَذِهِ فَقَالَ إِنَّهُ مَنْ قَامَ مَعَ الْإِمَامِ حَتَّى يَنْصَرِفَ كُتِبَ لَهُ قِيَامُ لَيْلَةٍ ثُمَّ لَمْ يُصَلِّ بِنَا حَتَّى بَقِيَ ثَلَاثٌ مِنْ الشَّهْرِ وَصَلَّى بِنَا فِي الثَّالِثَةِ وَدَعَا أَهْلَهُ وَنِسَاءَهُ فَقَامَ بِنَا حَتَّى تَخَوَّفْنَا الْفَلَاحَ قُلْتُ لَهُ وَمَا الْفَلَاحُ قَالَ السُّحُورُ

“Kami berpuasa Ramadhan bersama Rasulullah. Beliau tidak mengimami shalat tarawih kami selama bulan itu, kecuali sampai tinggal tujuh hari. Saat itu, Beliau mengimami kami (shalat tarawih) sampai berlalu sepertiga malam. Pada hari keenam (tinggal 6 hari), Beliau tidak shalat bersama kami. Baru kemudian pada hari kelima (tinggal 5 hari), Beliau mengimami kami (shalat tarawih) sampai berlalu separoh malam. Saat itu kami berkata kepada Beliau: ‘Wahai Rasulullah. Sudikah engkau menambah shalat pada malam ini’. Beliau menjawab,’Sesungguhnya jika seseorang shalat bersama imamnya sampai selesai, niscaya ditulis baginya pahala shalat satu malam’. Lalu pada malam keempat (tinggal 4 hari), kembali Beliau tidak mengimami shalat kami. Dan pada malam ketiga (tinggal 3 hari), Beliau kumpulkan keluarga dan istri-istrinya serta orang-orang, lalu mengimami kami (pada malam tersebut) sampai kami takut kehilangan kemenangan. Aku (perawi dari Abu Dzar) berkata: Aku bertanya, Apa kemenangan itu?. Beliau (Abu Dzar) menjawab, Sahur.” [HR At Tirmidzi].

Demikianlah shalat tarawih atau qiyamu ramadhan tidak dilaksanakan dengan berjamaah pada masa Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam dan masa Abu Bakar, sampai pada masa kekhalifahan Umar bin Khaththab. Rasulullah tidak melakukannya secara berjamaah terus-menerus, sebab Beliau khawatir hal itu akan diwajibkan atas kaum Muslimin, sehingga ummatnya tidak mampu mengerjakannya. Disebutkan dalam hadits Aisyah (dalam Shahihain): “Bahwasanya Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam keluar pada suatu malam, lalu shalat di masjid, dan beberapa orang ikut shalat bersamanya. Pagi harinya, manusia membicarakan hal itu. Maka berkumpullah orang lebih banyak dari mereka, lalu (Rasulullah) shalat dan orang-orang tersebut shalat bersamanya. Pada keesokan harinya, manusia membicarakan hal itu. Maka pada malam ke tiga, jama’ah semakin banyak, lalu Rasulullah keluar dan shalat bersama mereka. Ketika malam ke empat masjid tidak dapat menampung jama’ah (namun Beliau tidak keluar) sehingga Beliau keluar untuk shalat Subuh; ketika selesai shalat Subuh, Beliau menghadap jama’ah, lalu membaca syahadat dan bersabda: Amma ba’du. Aku sudah mengetahui sikap kalian. Akan tetapi, aku khawatir shalat ini diwajibkan kepada kalian, lalu kalian tidak mampu melaksanakannya. Lalu (setelah beberapa waktu) Rasulullah meninggal, dan perkara tersebut tetap dalam keadaan tidak berjamaah”. [HR Al Bukhari dan Muslim].

Jadi, sebab shalat ini tidak dilaksanakan secara berjama’ah terus-menerus pada masa Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam adalah kekhawatiran beliau Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam kalau-kalau shalat ini diwajibkan atas umatnya. Dan sebab ini telah hilang dengan wafatnya beliau Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam. karena dengan wafatnya beliau berarti agama ini telah disempurnakan oleh Allah Azza wa Jalla, tidak mungkin lagi ada penambahan. Dengan demikian, tinggallah hukum disyariatkannya berjamaah dalam qiyam Ramadhan (baca tarawih) yang hal itu dihidupkan oleh Umar bin al-Khaththab pada kekhalifaannya.

b. Jumlah Rakaatnya.
Menurut pendapat yang rajih (kuat), qiyam ramadhan dikerjakan 11-23 rakaat, dan boleh kurang darinya. Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam tidak menentukan banyaknya maupun panjang bacaannya.

c. Waktunya.
Waktunya dikerjakan dari setelah shalat Isya` sampai munculnya fajar Subuh. Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam bersabda :

إِنَّ اللهَ زَادَ كُمْ صَلاَةً ،وَهِيَ الْوِتْرُ فَصَلُّوْهَا بَيْنَ صَلاَةِ الْعِشَاءِ إِلَى صَلاَةِ الْفَجْرِ

“Sesungguhnya Allah telah menambah kalian satu shalat, dan dia adalah witir, maka shalatlah kalian antara shalat Isya sampai shalat Fajar”. [HR Ahmad dari Abi Bashrah, dan dishahihkan Al Albani dalam Qiyam Ar Ramadhan, 26].

d. Qunut.
Setelah selesai membaca surat dan sebelum ruku, kadang-kadang Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam membaca qunut, dan boleh dilakukan setelah ruku.

e. Bacaan Setelah Shalat Witir.

سُبْحَانَ الْمَلِكِ الْقُدُوْسِ سُبْحَانَ الْمَلِكِ الْقُدُوْسِ سُبْحَانَ الْمَلِكِ الْقُدُوْس

Cara membaca doa ini, yaitu dengan memanjangkan suara dan meninggikannya pada yang ketiga.

3. Sahur.
Allah mensyariatkan sahur atas kaum Muslimin untuk membedakan puasa mereka dengan puasa orang-orang sebelum mereka, sebagaimana disabdakan Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam dalam hadits Abu Sa’id Al Khudri :

فَصْلُ مَا بَيْنَ صِيَامِنَا وَصِيَامِ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ أَكْلَةُ السَّحُوْرِ رواه مسلم

“Yang membedakan puasa kita dengan puasa ahli kitab adalah makan sahur”. [Riwayat Muslim].

a. Keutamaan Sahur.
- Sahur adalah berkah. Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam bersabda :

إِنَّهَا بَرَكَةٌ أَعْطَاكُمُ اللهُ إِيَّاهَا فَلاَ تَدَعُوْهُ رواه النسائي وأحمد بسند صحيح

“Sesungguhnya sahur adalah berkah yang diberikan Allah kepada kalian, maka kalian jangan meninggalkannya”. [Riwayat An Nasa-i dan Ahmad, dengan sanad yang shahih].

Sahur sebagai suatu berkah dapat dilihat dengan jelas, karena itu mengikuti Sunnah dan menguatkan orang berpuasa, serta menambah semangat untuk menambah puasa. Juga mengandung maksud untuk membedakan dengan ahli kitab.

- Shalawat dari Allah dan malaikat ditujukan kepada orang yang bersahur. Dalam hadits Abu Sa’id Al Khudri Radhiyallahu ‘anhu, bahwa Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam bersabda:

السَّحُوْرُ أَكْلَةُ الْبَرَكَةِ، فَلاَ تَدَعُوْهُ وَلَوْ أَنْ يَجْرَعَ أَحَدُكُمْ جُرْعَةً مِنْ مَاءٍ فَإِنَّ اللهَ وَمَلاَئِكَتَهُ يُصَلُّوْنَ عَلَى الْمُتَسَحِّرِيْنَ رواه ابن أبي شيبة وأحمد

“Sahur adalah makanan berkah, maka kalian jangan tinggalkan, walaupun salah seorang dari kalian hanya meminum seteguk air, karena Allah dan para malaikat bershalawat atas orang-orang yang bersahur”.[Riwayat Ibnu Abu Syaibah dan Ahmad].

b. Mengakhirkan Sahur Adalah Sunnah.
Disunnahkan memperlambat sahur sampai mendekati Subuh (Fajar), sebagaimana disebutkan Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam dalam hadits Ibnu Abbas Radhiyallahu ‘anhu dari Zaid bin Tsabit, ia berkata :

تَسَحَّرْنَا مَعَ النَّبِيْثُمَّ قَامَ إِلَى الصَّلاَةِ، قُلْتُ:كَمْ كَانَ بَيْنَ اْلأَذَانِ وَالسُّحُوْرِ؟ قَالَ: قَدْرُ خَمْسِيْنَ آيـة رواه البخاري ومسلم

“Kami sahur bersama Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, kemudian Beliau pergi untuk shalat. Aku (Ibnu Abbas) bertanya: Berapa lama antara adzan dengan sahur? Dia menjawab, Sekitar 50 ayat.” [Riwayat Al Bukhari dan Muslim]
.
c. Hukum Sahur.
Sahur merupakan sunnah muakkad (sunnah yang ditekankan). Dalilnya :
- Perintah Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam :

تَسَحَّرُوْا فَإِنَّ فِيْ السُّحُوْرِ بَرَكَةً رواه البخاري ومسلم

“Bersahurlah, karena dalam sahur terdapat berkah”. [Riwayat Al Bukhari dan Muslim].

- Larangan meninggalkan sahur sebagaimana tersebut dalam hadits Abu Sa’id yang terdahulu. Oleh karena itu, Al Hafizh Ibnu Hajar dalam Fathul Bari (3/139) menukilkan ijma tentang sunnahnya sahur.

4. Waktu Puasa.
Waktu puasa dimulai dari terbit fajar Subuh sampai terbenam matahari. Dalilnya, yaitu firman Allah, yang artinya : “Dan makan dan minumlah kalian sampai jelas bagi kalian putihnya siang dan hitamnya malam dari fajar, kemudian sempurnakanlah puasa sampai malam”. [Al-Baqarah:186].

Setelah jelas waktu fajar, maka kita menyempurnakan puasa sampai terbenam matahari, lalu berbuka sebagaimana disebutkan dalam hadits Umar Radhiyallahu ‘anhu bahwa Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam bersabda :

إِذَا أَقْبَلَ اللَّيْلُ مِنْ هَهُنَا وَ أَدْبَرَ النَّهَارُ مِنْ هَهُنَا وَغَرَبَتِ الشَّمْسُ فَقَدْ أَفْطَرَ الصَّائِمُ رواه البخاري ومسلم

“Jika telah datang waktu malam dari arah sini dan pergi waktu siang dari arah sini serta telah terbenam matahari, maka orang yang berpuasa telah berbuka”. [Riwayat Al Bukhari dan Muslim]

Waktu berbuka tersebut dapat dilihat dengan datangnya awal kegelapan dari arah timur setelah hilangnya bulatan matahari secara langsung. Semua itu dapat dilihat dengan mata telanjang, tidak memerlukan alat teropong untuk mengetahuinya.

5. Perkara-Perkara Yang Membatalkan Puasa.
a. Makan dan minum dengan sengaja. Firman Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala, yang artinya : “Dan makan dan minumlah kalian sampai jelas bagi kalian putihnya siang dan hitamnya malam dari fajar, kemudian sempurnakanlah puasa sampai malam” [Al-Baqarah:186].
b. Sengaja untuk muntah, atau muntah dengan sengaja.
c. Haid dan nifas.
d. Injeksi yang berisi makanan (infus).
e. Bersetubuh.

6. Perkara-Perkara Lain Yang Harus Ditinggalkan Saat Berpuasa.
a. Berkata bohong. Dalam hadits Abu Hurairah Radhiyallahu ‘anhu bahwa Rasulullah saw bersabda:

مَنْ لَمْ يَدَعْ قَوْلَ الزُّوْرِ وَ اْلعَمَلَ بِهِ فَلَيْسَ ِلهُِ حَاجَةً أَنْ يَدَعَ طَعَامَهُ وَشَرَابَه رواه البخاري

“Barangsiapa yang tidak meninggalkan perkataan dan perbuatan bohong, maka Allah tidak butuh dengan usahanya meninggalkan makan dan minum”. [Riwayat Al Bukhari].

b. Berbuat kesia-siaan dan kejahatan (kejelekan). Disebutkan dalam hadits Abu Hurairah Radhiyallahu ‘anhu bahwa Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam bersabda:

لَيْسَ الصِّيَامُ مِنَ اْلأَكْلِ وَالشَّرَابِ إِنَّمَا الصِّيَامُ مِنَ اللَّغْوِ وَالرَّفَثِ، فَإِنْ سَابَكَ أَحَدٌ أَوْ جَهِلَ عَلَيْكَ فَقُلْ إِنِّيْ صَائِمٌ إِنِّيْ صَائِمٌ رواه ابن خزيمة والحاكم

“Bukanlah puasa itu (menahan diri) dari makan dan minum, (tetapi) puasa itu adalah (menahan diri) dari kesia-siaan dan kejelekan, maka kalau seseorang mencacimu atau berbuat kejelekan kepadamu, maka katakanlah : Saya sedang puasa. Saya sedang puasa”. [Riwayat Ibnu Khuzaimah dan Al Hakim].

7. Perkara-Perkara Yang Dibolehkan.
a. Orang yang junub sampai datang waktu fajar, sebagaimana disebutkan dalam hadits Aisyah dan Ummu Salamah, keduanya berkata: “Sesungguhnya Nabi Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam mendapatkan fajar (Subuh) dalam keadaan junub dari keluarganya, kemudian mandi dan berpuasa”. [Riwayat Al Bukhari dan Muslim].
b. Bersiwak.
c. Berkumur dan memasukkan air ke hidung ketika berwudhu`.
d. Bersentuhan dan berciuman bagi orang yang berpuasa, dan dimakruhkan bagi orang-orang yang berusia muda, karena dikhawatirkan hawa nafsunya bangkit.
e. Injeksi yang bukan berupa makanan.
f. Berbekam.
g. Mencicipi makanan selama tidak masuk ke tenggorokan.
h. Memakai penghitam mata (celak) dan tetes mata.
i. Menyiram kepala dengan air dingin dan mandi.

8. Orang-Orang Yang Dibolehkan Tidak Berpuasa.
a. Musafir (orang yang melakukan perjalanan atau bepergian ke luar kota). Mereka diberi kemudahan oleh Allah untuk berbuka. Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala berfirman, yang artinya : “Dan barangsiapa sakit atau dalam perjalanan (lalu dia berbuka), maka (wajiblah baginya berpuasa) sebanyak hari yang ditinggalkannya itu pada hari-hari yang lain”. [Al-Baqarah :185]. Mereka diperbolehkan berbuka dan mengqadha (mengganti) puasanya pada bulan-bulan yang lainnya.

b. Orang yang sakit diperbolehkan berbuka puasa pada bulan Ramadhan sebagai rahmat dan kemudahan yang Allah limpahkan kepadanya. Orang Sakit yang dibolehkan untuk berbuka puasa, jika sakit tersebut dapat membahayakan jiwanya, atau menambah sakitnya yang ditakutkan akan mengakhirkan atau memperlambat kesembuhannya jika si penderita berpuasa.

c. Wanita yang sedang haid atau nifas diwajibkan berbuka, maksudnya tidak boleh berpuasa. Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam bersabda :

أَلَيْسَ إِذَا حَاضَتْ لَمْ تُصَلِّ وَ لَمْ تَصُمْ فَذَلِكَ نُقْصَانُ دِيْنِهَا

“Bukankah kalau dia sedang haid tidak boleh shalat dan tidak boleh puasa? Maka itulah kekurangan agamanya”. [HR Bukhari].

Juga hadits Aisyah ketika beliau ditanya tentang wanita yang mengqadha puasa dan tidak mengqadha shalatnya:

كَانَ يُصِيْبُنَا ذَلِكَ فَنُؤْمَرُ بِقَضَاءِ صَوْمِنَا وَلاَ نُؤْمَرُ بِقَضَاءِ صَلاَتِنَا

“Dulu kamipun mendapatkannya, lalu kami diperintahkan untuk mengqadha puasa dan tidak diperintahkan mengqadha shalat”. [HR Bukhari dan Muslim].

Berdasarkan ijma’ para ulama, maka wanita yang sedang haid atau nifas, diwajibkan berbuka dan mengqadha puasanya pada bulan-bulan yang lain.

d. Orang yang sudah tua dan lemah, baik laki-laki maupun perempuan dibolehkan untuk berbuka, sebagaimana dikatakan Ibnu Abbas: “Orang laki-laki dan perempuan tua yang sudah tidak mampu berpuasa, maka mereka memberi makan setiap hari seorang miskin”. [Riwayat Al Bukhari, no. 4505].

e. Wanita sedang hamil atau menyusui, yang takut terhadap keselamatan dirinya dan anak yang dikandungnya atau anak yang disusuinya, juga termasuk yang mendapat keringanan untuk berbuka. Tidak ada kewajiban bagi mereka, kecuali fidyah. Demikian ini adalah pendapat Ibnu Abbas dan Ishaq. Dalilnya ialah firman Allah, yang artinya : Dan wajib bagi orang-orang yang berat menjalankannya membayar fidyah (jika mereka tidak puasa), (yaitu) memberi makan seorang miskin. [Al-Baqarah : 184].

Ayat ini dikhususkan bagi orang tua yang sudah lemah, orang sakit yang tidak kunjung sembuh, orang hamil dan menyusui jika keduanya takut terhadap keselamatan dirinya atau anaknya. Karena ayat di atas telah dinasakh oleh ayat yang lain, sebagaimana disebutkan dalam hadits Abdulah bin Umar dan Salamah bin Al Akwa’:

كُنَّا فِيْ رَمَضَانَ عَلَى عَهْدِ رَسُوْلِ اللهِ مَنْ شَاءَ صَامَ وَمَنْ شَاءَ أَفْطَرَ فَافْتَدَى بِطَعَامِ مِسْكِيْنِ
حَتَّى نَزَلَتْ هَذِهِ الأَيَةُ : فَمَنْ شَهِدَ مِنْكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْ.

“Kami dahulu pada bulan Ramadlan dimasa Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam yang mau berpuasa, boleh dan yang tidak bepuasa juga boleh, tapi memberikan makan kepada satu orang miskin, sampai turun ayat (yang artinya) “Barangsiapa di antara kamu hadir (di negeri tempat tinggalnya) pada bulan itu, maka hendaklah dia berpuasa pada bulan itu, -QS Al Baqarah ayat 185-
,
Akan tetapi Ibnu Abbas berpendapat, bahwa ayat tersebut tidak dinasakh (dihapus). Ayat ini khusus bagi orang-orang tua yang tidak mampu berpuasa, dan mereka boleh memberi makan satu orang miskin setiap hari. (Lihat perkataannya yang diriwayatkan Ibnul Jarut, Baihaqi dan Abu Dawud dengan sanad shahih). Pendapat ini dikuatkan juga oleh hadits Mu’adz bin Jabal, ia berkata:

فَإِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ كَانَ يَصُومُ ثَلَاثَةَ أَيَّامٍ مِنْ كُلِّ شَهْرٍ وَيَصُومُ يَوْمَ عَاشُورَاءَ فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمْ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ إِلَى قَوْلِهِ طَعَامُ مِسْكِينٍ فَمَنْ شَاءَ أَنْ يَصُومَ صَامَ وَمَنْ شَاءَ أَنْ يُفْطِرَ وَيُطْعِمَ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ مِسْكِينًا أَجْزَأَهُ ذَلِكَ وَهَذَا حَوْلٌ فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِي أُنْزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْآنُ إِلَى أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ فَثَبَتَ الصِّيَامُ عَلَى مَنْ شَهِدَ الشَّهْرَ وَعَلَى الْمُسَافِرِ أَنْ يَقْضِيَ وَثَبَتَ الطَّعَامُ لِلشَّيْخِ الْكَبِيرِ وَالْعَجُوزِ اللَّذَيْنِ لَا يَسْتَطِيعَانِ الصَّوْمَ

“Sesungguhnya Rasulullah setelah datang ke Madinah memulai puasa tiga hari setiap bulan dan puasa hari Asyura, kemudian Allah turunkan firmanNya ” Wahai orang-orang yang beriman, telah diwajibkan atas kelian berpuasa…” sampai pada firmanNya “…memberi makan.”. Ketika itu, siapa yang ingin berpuasa, dia berpuasa. Dan yang ingin berbuka (tidak puasa), bisa menggantinya dengan memberi makan satu orang miskin. Ini selama satu tahun. Kemudian Allah menurunkan lagi ayat yang lain “Bulan Ramadhan yang diturunkan padanya Al Qur’an …” sampai pada firmanNya “..di hari yang lain ..”. Maka puasa tetap wajib bagi orang yang mukim (tidak safar) pada bulan tersebut, dan bagi musafir wajib mengqadha puasanya, dan menetapkan pemberian makanan bagi orang-orang tua yang tidak mampu untuk berpuasa … . ” [HR Abu Dawud, Baihaqi dan Ahmad].

Pendapat ini dirajihkan oleh Syaikh Ali Hasan Ali Abdul Hamid dan Salim Al Hilali dalam Shifat Shaum Nabi, lihat halaman 80-84.

9. Berbuka Puasa.
a. Mempercepat waktu berbuka puasa. Termasuk sunnah dalam puasa, yaitu mempercepat waktu berbuka. Sebagaimana dikatakan oleh Amr bin Maimun Al Audi, bahwa sahabat-sahabat Muhammad Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam adalah orang-orang yang paling cepat berbuka dan paling lambat sahurnya. [Diriwayatkan oleh Abdurrazaq dalam Al Mushannaf, no. 7591 dengan sanad yang dishahihkan Ibnu Hajar dalam Fathul Bary, 4/199]. Manfaat dari mempercepat berbuka ialah :

- Untuk mendapatkan kebaikan. Disebutkan dalam hadits yang diriwayatkan Sahl bin Sa’ad Radhiyallahu ‘anhu, bahwa Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam bersabda :

لاَ يَزَالُ النَّاسُ بِخَيْرٍ مَا عَجَّلُوْا اْلفِطْرَ رواه البخاري ومسلم

“Manusia akan senantiasa dalam kebaikan selama mereka mempercepat buka puasanya.”. [Riwayat Al Bukhari dan Muslim].

- Merupakan Sunnah Nabi Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam.
- Untuk membedakan dengan puasa ahli kitab, sebagaimana disebutkan dalam hadits Abu Hurairah Radhiyallahu ‘anhu bahwa Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam bersabda :

لاَ يَزَالُ الدِّيْنُ ظَاهِرًا مَا عَجَّلَ النَّاسُ الْفِطْرَ، لأَنَّ الْيَهُوْدَ وَالنَّصَارَى يُؤَخِّرُوْنَهُ رواه أبو داود وابن حبان بسند حسن

“Agama ini akan senantiasa menang selama manusia (kaum Muslimin) mempercepat buka puasanya, karena orang-orang Yahudi dan Nashrani mengakhirkannya”. [Riwayat Abu Dawud dan Ibnu Hibban dengan sanad hasan].

Dan berbuka puasa dilakukan sebelum shalat Maghrib, karena merupakan akhlak para nabi.

b. Makanan Berbuka.
Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam menganjurkan kita untuk berbuka dengan kurma, dan kalau tidak ada, maka dengan air sebagaimana dikatakan Anas bin Malik: “Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam berbuka dengan ruthab sebelum shalat, kalau tidak ada ruthab, maka dengan kurma, dan kalau tidak ada kurma, Beliau menghirup (meminum) beberapa teguk air”. [HR Ahmad, Abu Dawud dan Ibnu Khuzaimah dengan sanad yang shahih]. Ini merupakan kesempurnaan kasih sayang dan perhatian Beliau Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam terhadap umatnya.

c. Bacaan Ketika Berbuka.
Berdoa ketika berbuka termasuk dari doa-doa yang mustajab, sebagaimana disabdakan Rasulllah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam :

ثَلاَثُ دَعَوَاتٍ مُسْتَجَابَاتٍ دَعْوَةُ الصَّائِمِ وَ دَعْوَةُ الْمَظْلُوْمِ وَ دَعْوَةُ الْمُسَافِرِ

“Ada tiga doa yang mustajab, (yaitu): doanya orang yang berpuasa, doanya orang yang terzhalimi dan doanya para musafir”. [HR Al Uqaili].

Sebaiknya berdoa dengan doa:

ذَهَبَ الظَّمَأُ وَابْتَلَّتِ الْعُرُوْقُ وَ ثَبَتََ الأَجْرُ إِنْ شَاءَاللهُ

“Mudah-mudahan hilang dahaga, basah otot-otot dan mendapat pahala, insya Allah”.

d. Memberi Makan Kepada Orang Yang Berpuasa.
Hendaknya orang yang berpuasa menambah pahala puasanya dengan memberi makan orang yang berbuka puasa. Orang yang melakukannya akan mendapatkan pahala yang sangat besar. Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam bersabda :

مَنْ فَطَّرَ صَائِمًا كَانَ لَهُ مِثْلُ أَجْرِهِ غَيْرُ أَنَّهُ لاَ يَنْقُصُ مِنْ أَجْرِ الصَّائِمِ شَيْئًا

“Barangsiapa yang memberi buka puasa orang yang berpuasa, maka dia mendapat (pahala) seperti pahalanya (orang yang berbuka itu) tanpa mengurang sedikitpun pahala orang yang berpuasa tersebut”. [HR Ahmad dan At Tirmidzi]

10. Adab Orang Yang Berpuasa.
a. Memperlambat sahur.
b. Mempercepat berbuka puasa.
c. Berdoa ketika berpuasa dan ketika berbuka.
d. Menahan diri dari perkara-perkara yang merusak puasa.
e. Bersiwak.
f. Memperbanyak berinfak dan tadarus Al Qur`an.
g. Bersungguh-sungguh dalam beribadah, khususnya pada sepuluh hari terakhir.

Demikianlah beberapa hal yang berkaitan dengan ibadah puasa yang kamisampaikan secara singkat. Mudah-mudahan bermanfaat.

Brain Gym atau senam otak, 2 kata ini mulai populer di tahun ’80an. Di Indonesia sendiri baru-baru ini saja dikenal karena manfaat luar biasa yang terkandung di dalamnya. Banyak manfaat yang dapat di terima oleh pelaksananya. Salah satunya memanfaatkan potensi yang ada pada dua belahan otak manusia. Selama ini masyarakat di Indonesia cenderung menggunakan otak kirinya, padahal mereka yang mengutamakan aktifasi otak kiri akan cenderung terdikte atas apa yang di perintahkan dan sangat kurang kreatif. Nah di sinilah peran brain gym di perlukan.

Brain gym dikemas dengan gerakan-gerakan sederhana nan unik yang mampu menyeimbangkan kedua belah otak. Brain gym dipercaya dapat mengaktifkan sel-sel yang ada di kedua belah otak sehingga keduanya dapat melakukan peranannya dengan baik. Gerakan ini juga praktis karena dapat dilakukan dimana pun dan hanya memerlukan waktu yang singkat dibandingkan melakukan meditasi atau yoga. Hal ini dapat menjadi alternatif selingan dalam proses belajar-mengajar. Ayo pak/ibu pengajar jadikan brain gym sebagai selingan pelajaran karena selain mampu me-refresh otak, aktivitas ini juga mampu meningkatkan konsentrasi otak anak…

Eight game
Pura-puralah menulis angka delapan tidur atau simbol ? di udara dengan tangan kiri dan kanan secara bersama-sama. Permainan sederhana ini bertujuan untuk menyeimbangkan syaraf motorik kiri dan syaraf motorik kanan. Cobalah dan teruskanlah permainan ini setelah sarapan, selama dua menit setiap hari.

Thumb game
Acungkanlah jempol tangan kiri dan kelingking tangan kanan, sambil menyorongkan kedua belah tangan ke arah kanan. Sebaliknya, acungkanlah jempol tangan kanan dan kelingking tangan kiri, sambil menyorongkan kedua belah tangan ke arah kiri. Permainan sederhana ini bertujuan untuk menyeimbangkan syaraf motorik kiri dan syaraf motorik kanan. Cobalah dan teruskanlah permainan ini bersama teman-teman setelah makan siang, selama dua menit setiap hari.

Pattern game
Gambarlah pola-pola tertentu di atas kertas kosong, dengan tangan kiri dan kanan secara bersama-sama, ke arah dalam, luar, atas, dan bawah. Selain bertujuan untuk menyeimbangkan syaraf motorik kiri dan syaraf motorik kanan, permainan unik ini juga dapat menggali potensi visual. Cobalah permainan ini selama dua menit setiap hari, minimal 14 hari berturut-turut.

Specific crawl
Gerakkan tangan kanan serentak dengan kaki kiri. Kemudian balaslah, gerakkan tangan kiri serentak dengan kaki kanan. Idealnya, siku tangan menyentuh lutut. Iringi pula dengan lagu favorit. Selain bertujuan untuk menyeimbangkan syaraf motorik kiri dan syaraf motorik kanan, gerakan ini juga dapat membuat pikiran terbuka terhadap hal-hal yang baru. Cobalah gerakan ini secara 10 menit setiap hari, minimal 14 hari berturut-turut.

Specific posturing
Bertumpulah di lantai dengan lutut kiri dan tangan kanan. Sementara itu, kaki kanan diluruskan ke belakang dan tangan kiri diluruskan ke depan. Posisi ini bertujuan untuk mengaktifkan syaraf-syaraf tertentu secara umum dan otak kanan secara khusus. Cobalah posisi ini selama 10 menit setiap hari, minimal 14 hari berturut-turut.

Specific relaxing
Tip ini khusus anak-anak. Pertahankan posisi relaksasi setengah tengkurap. Biasakan pula posisi ini ketika anak tidur. Semakin dini, semakin baik. Biasakan pula posisi ini ketika anak sakit, sambil dipeluk oleh orang tua. Dengan demikian, otak anak berada dalam frekuensi alpha dan anak akan merasa damai karenanya.

Rotated reading
Balikkan sebuah tulisan (atas bawah), lalu bacalah tulisan tersebut dari kanan ke kiri. Cobalah dan teruskanlah kebiasaan baru ini selama 2 menit setiap hari.

Left-handed foreplay
Tip yang boleh juga disebut Kamasutra ini khusus untuk lelaki yang telah menikah. Cumbulah pasangan Anda dengan menggunakan tangan kiri. (Bagi Anda yang belum menikah, jangan khawatir, Anda tetap bisa melakukannya. Caranya? Menikahlah dulu.)

Left-handed handling
Peganglah gagang pintu dan bukalah pintu dengan tangan kiri. Cobalah dan teruskanlah kebiasaan baru ini setiap hari.

Left-handed brushing
Gosoklah gigi dengan tangan kiri pada pagi hari. Untuk sore atau malam hari, tetaplah menggosok gigi dengan tangan kanan. Cobalah dan teruskanlah kebiasaan baru ini setiap hari.

Left-handed writing
Tulislah nama panggilan Anda dengan tangan kiri di atas kertas kosong. Cobalah kebiasaan baru ini minimal 10 kali sehari, minimal selama 14 hari berturut-turut. Niscaya Anda akan menemukan keajaiban, di mana pada hari ke-3 Anda dapat menulisnya dengan sangat mudah.

Left-handed signing
Buatlah tanda tangan Anda dengan tangan kiri di atas sehelai kertas kosong. Cobalah kebiasaan baru ini minimal 10 kali sehari, minimal selama 14 hari berturut-turut. Niscaya Anda akan menemukan keajaiban, di mana 2 dari 10 tanda tangan tersebut menyerupai bentuk aslinya.

Berikut ini beberapa gerakan ringan yang perlu anda coba:

Biasakan senam otak di pagi dengan gerakan ringan di atas.

Banyak cara dilakukan untuk dapat membuat awal hari menjadi bersemangat, salah satunya dengan latihan otak sederhana di pagi hari. Berolahraga otak di pagi hari dapat membantu Anda merasa lebih siap menghadapi hari dan juga meningkatkan energi dan kegembiraan.

Latihan otak beberapa menit sebelum keluar kamar tidur untuk mandi atau saat berdandan dapat membangun pikiran dan indera Anda untuk siap menjalani aktivitas dan rutinitas sepanjang hari. Latihan tersebut bisa berupa latihan fisik, mental atau kombinasi keduanya.

Dilansir Livestrong, berikut beberapa latihan otak sederhana yang dapat dilakukan di pagi hari:

1. Bernyanyi sambil melakukan aktivitas lain
Bernyanyi atau bersenandung saat Anda sedang berpakaian atau menyiapkan sarapan dapat menjadi latihan yang merangsang otak ‘bangun’ di pagi hari.

Latihan ini dapat meningkatkan jumlah dendrit atau garis sel saraf di otak yang memungkinkan otak untuk berfungsi, sehingga mengaktifkan lebih dari satu fungsi sensor yang dapat merangsang aktivitas otak.

2. Ubah rutinitas
Menurut Lawrence Katz, profesor Neurobiologi di Duke University Medical Center, mengubah rutinitas dan cara-cara hidup baru dapat mengaktifkan koneksi otak yang sebelumnya tidak aktif.

Latihan yang bisa dilakukan misalnya, bila Anda selalu menuju kamar mandi saat bangun tidur ubah menjadi minum kopi dulu, sikat gigi sebelum berpakaian atau mencoba menu sarapan baru yang belum pernah sebelumnya.

3. Olahraga Sederahana
Latihan fisik dapat meningkatkan kesehatan otak, karena dapat meningkatkan aliran darah ke otak. Lakukan olahraga sederhana, misalnya peregangan, yoga, bersepeda, jogging atau jalan santai.

Menurut Stanford Center on Longevity and the Max Planck Institute for Human Development, latihan fisik dapat meningkatkan perhatian, penalaran dan memori.

4. Latihan sensasi
Libatkan otak dengan gerakan setelah bangun dan sebelum Anda keluar dari tempat tidur. Mulai dari kaki, gerakkan jari, kontraksi otot betis dan kemudian kencangkan lutut.

Fokus pada bagaimana otot-otot merasa saat Anda bergerak. Gerakan tubuh akan menginstruksikan otak untuk fokus pada berbagai bagian tubuh sampai mencapai wajah. Mengencangkan bibir, mengerutkan hidung dan kemudian mengangkat alis dapat merangsang otak dan organ internal.

Sumber

Senam otak (Brain Gym) pertama kali dikembangkan oleh Dr Dennison dan istrinya setelah melewati masa riset selama hampir 19 tahun. Terdapat keterkaitan antara perkembangan tubuh, bahasa dan prestasi akademik Ia kemudiam mengembangkan serangkaian gerakan yang dinamakan Brain Gym dan berhasil mengubah kesulitan belajar menjadi sebuah keberhasilan yang luar biasa.Paul Dennison membagi otak ke dalam tiga fungsi utama, yaitu:

1. Dimensi Lateral: koordinasi antara hemisfir kanan dan kiri yang berguna untuk membangun/mengembangkan komunikasi dengan lebih efektif
2. Dimensi Pemusatan: Koordinasi antara bagian atas dan bawah otak yang berguna untuk mengatur proses berpikir dan tindakan.
3. Dimensi Fokus: koordinasi antara batang otak dan pre-frontal cortex yang berguna untuk tujuan pemahaman dan perspektif.

Senam otak sangat baik dilakukan pada awal pembelajaran, yang berguna untuk membuka titik-titik positif belajar. Setelah belajar, Senam otak juga bisa dilakukan kembali untuk membuat santai/rileks akibat proses pembelajaran yang melelahkan/menegangkan/membutuhkan konsentrasi tinggi. Senam otak bisa pula berfungsi untuk meredakan dan mengurangi stress.

Macam-macam Senam Otak
Gerakan Tangan Kiri dan Kanan (posisi 8 tidur)

Luruskan satu lengan ke depan Anda, dengan ibu jari mengarah ke depan. Di udara, dengan perlahan-lahan dan halus buat gambar angka 8 berukuran besar yang rebah di sisinya. Ketika Anda bergerak mengikuti gambar 8 tidur, fokuskan mata Anda di ibu jari. Jaga leher Anda tetap relaks dan kepala lurus, wajah ke depan, agar kepala agak diam atau hanya sedikit bergerak mengikuti gerakan 8 tidur.



Langkah-langkahnya:
A. Gerakkan tangan menuju arah panah 1 ( Ke kiri), agak atas dari mata. namun jangan terlalu lebar. Batasannya, dengan lirikan, ibu jari itu masih bisa terlihat. Terus bergeraklah ke kiri, turun ke bawah pada langkah 2 dan 3, lalu kembali ke posisi semula di langkah ke-4.
B. Ikuti gerakan arah panah 5 (Ke kanan), agak ke atas dari mata, sebagaimana langkah 1 tadi. lalu ikuti langkah ke6 dan 7, sebelum kembali ke posisi semula di 8.
C. Ulangi langkah 1 hingga langkah 8, delapan kali sehari. lama kelamaan, anda akan semakin lancar menggerakkan mata anda mengikuti ibu jari tersebut. Bila sudah demikian lancar, anda boleh melakukan senam otak di atas, tanpa menggunakan penunjuk ibu jari.
untuk gerakan selengkapnya, buka gerakan tangan kiri, dan gerakan tangan kanan.

Manfaat 8 Tidur
Gerakan 8 Tidur memadukan bidang visual kiri dan kanan, jadi meningkatkan integrasi belahan otak kiri dan kanan, sehingga keseimbangan dan koordinasi antar bagian menjadi lebih baik. Banyak orang melaporkan penglihatan dengan kedua mata bersamaan (binokular) membaik dan penglihatan perifer meluas, setelah melakukan 8 Tidur. Keterampilan membaca, menulis, dan memahami menjadi semakin baik.

Resource

Kapankah bayi saya bisa mulai makan makanan padat sebagai pendamping ASI ? Pertanyaan ini sering kali dialami oleh seorang mama yang baru memiliki anak. Ini hal yang wajar dan memang sebaiknya diketahui jauh-jauh hari sebelum waktunya agar anak anda tidak terlambat dalam memperoleh asupan makanan padat.

Jenis makanan apa saja yang baik untuk bayi saya?

Berapa usia yang tepat? Saat usia 4 bulan ato 6 bulan ?
Menurut para dokter dan ahli kesehatan, biasanya bayi usia 6 bulan keatas barulah boleh diperkenalkan dengan makanan padat sebagai pendamping dari ASI.

Lalu….jenis makanan padat yang bagaimana yang diperbolehkan bagi bayi saya?

Jenis-jenis makanan padat berikut ini mungkin bisa membantu menjawab pertanyaan anda:

1.Pisang. Banyak bayi yang memulai makanan padatnya dengan pisang yang dihaluskan. Pisang yang anda pilih sebaiknya pisang kepok merah yang memang umumnya diberikan pada bayi.
Untuk awal mula mungkin 1 buah pisang kecil sudah cukup dan bisa anda kerik dengan sendok kecil agar halus dan mudah ditelan bagi anak anda yang belum punya gigi saat ini.

2.Bubur beras merah. Anda dapat membuat sendiri dengan cara membeli beras merah yang ada di supermarket dan menjadikan bubur. Cara pemberiannya pun mudah, anda dapat mencampurkan bubur beras merah yang kaya dengan vitamin ini dengan susu formula bayi – agar lidah bayi anda tidak merasa asing. Untuk pertama kali, buatlah sedikit dahulu dan ini bisa dijadikan variasi makanan agar bayi tidak bosan.

3.Sayuran. Sayuran yang dapat anda berikan bisa berupa wortel, brokoli atau bayam yang dihaluskan, bisa dengan dicincang atau di blender. Anda dapat mencampurkan sayuran ini pada bubur bayi. Cucilah terlebih dahulu sayurannya dengan pencuci sayuran agar pestisida yang terdapat di sayuran terbuang.

4.Sereal/biscuit bayi. Cara pemberiannya dapat dicampur dengan susu formula bayi atau jika itu biscuit agar tidak terlalu manis anda dapat menghancurkannya cukup dengan air hangat.

Makanan padat diatas adalah makanan pendamping ASI bukan pengganti ASI yang memiliki nilai yang lebih tinggi untuk bayi usia dibawah 1 tahun.

Sumber

Mempunyai seorang anggota baru di keluarga memang akan memberikan suasana yang lain daripada sebelumnya, apalagi anggota baru itu seorang bayi mungil yang baru lahir. Sebagai seorang papa atau mama bila anda sudah memikirkan apa yang bisa saya berikan atau apa yang bisa saya lakukan buat si kecil itu sudah sangatlah bagus.
Kebutuhan dasar si kecil

Hal pertama yang perlu diingat, bahwa pertumbuhan otak bayi bukanlah didapat hanya dari belajar atau bermain, melainkan tidur yang berkualitas. Ya, benar. Di saat tidurlah pertumbuhan otak bayi itu mencapai puncaknya. Ini daftar jam tidur dalam 24 jam, yang papa dapatkan disaat belajar bagaimana memberikan sesuatu bagi si kecil, yakni
a) Usia 0-3 bulan : 16-20 jam
b) Usia 3-12 bulan : 14-15 jam
c) Usia 1-3 tahun : 12-14 jam
Menumbuh kembangkan otak bayi

Tidur yang cukup dan pemberian ASI yang teratur akan memberikan pertumbuhan otak anak anda secara bagus. Banyak sekali orang tua di kota-kota besar yang kurang memperhatikan hal ini. Bila anda telah membaca ini dan ingat ada teman atau saudara yang memiliki bayi kecil sampaikanlah hal ini, karena besar sekali pengaruhnya untuk kecerdasaan anak mereka kelak.

Sekarang adalah bagaimana ‘mengisi’ otak bayi kita disaat mereka sudah bangun tidur. Ada 5 permainan sederhana yang bisa dilakukan:
1. Panggil namanya dari sisi kiri dan kanan dengan lembut. Berbagai macam respon yang anda dapat, ada yang melirik ada yang berusaha menoleh, ada yang tersenyum manis. Permainan ini berguna untuk melatih daya dengar mereka dan menstimulus otak mereka.

2. Menyanyi dengan suara lembut. Tidak usah malu bila anda tidak dapat menyanyi dengan bagus atau suara anda sumbang, bagi seorang bayi suara musik yang didengar merupakan satu sentuhan emosi, sentuhan kasih sayang yang ia dapatkan dari papa dan mama.

3. Menggendong, mengajaknya jalan dan membelai. Dalam gendongan anda seorang bayi akan merasakan rasa aman dan dengan belaian lembut kebutuhan emosinya akan kasih sayang sedang anda berikan saat ini.

4. Ci luk ba atau permainan sembunyikan wajah dan tampakkan wajah anda dengan tangan. Permainan ini akan memberikan pengertian bagi bayi anda, kalau ia tidak bisa melihat sebuah benda bila tertutup sesuatu. Selain menutup wajah dengan tangan, cobalah dengan sapu tangan dan biarkan si kecil yang membukanya.

5. Permainan lidah. “Mana lidahnya” terus julurkan lidah anda, maka si kecil akan mengikuti anda. Permainan ini menstimulus daya tangkap, pengelihatan dan respon si kecil.

Untuk mencari ide yang lain, jadilah bayi. Waktu papa mendapatkan ini, mulanya saya tertawa dalam hati. “Sudah besar (dewasa) gini kok disuruh jadi bayi lagi”. Ternyata, suatu saat sepulang kerja, saya tiduran di box kayu bayi saya, disana barulah saya bisa ‘melihat’ dari sudut pandang anak saya. Dan dari sana juga timbullah ide-ide baru mengembangkan permainan untuknya.

Anda bisa tersenyum sendiri ketika melihat pertumbuhan bayi anda, sesuatu yang indah yang tidak dapat digantikan dengan uang atau apapun di dunia ini.

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Seseorang yang ‘hebat’ secara akademis, pada umumnya sangat kuat dalam logika, kata, daftar, angka, linieritas, analisis, dan sejenisnya. Menurut Tony Buzan (Use Your Head: 1993): hasil aktivitas otak kiri manusia.

Adapun otak kanan lebih berkaitan menangani irama, imajinasi, warna, angan-angan, kesadaran ruang, gambaran menyeluruh dan dimensi. Belakangan berkumandang anjuran, jangan hanya memanfaatkan otak kiri, otak kanan juga dong.

Konon, para ilmuwan hebat memanfaatkan otak kiri. Para seniman kuat di otak kanan. Mana tahu, Sampeyan hebat memanfaatkan otak kiri, canggih membedayakan otak kiri. Piawai menghitung fulus fasih berimajinasi.

Setiap manusia memiliki kecenderungannya masing2 dalam penggunaan otak kanan atau otak kiri, baik sadar ataupun dibawah sadarnya. Hal ini bergantung pada banyak faktor yang mempengaruhinya sejak masih kecil bahkan sejak dalam kandungan. Kecenderungan berpikir dengan otak kanan ataupun kiri merupakan hasil dari suatu proses yang sangat panjang dan yang tak boleh kita lupakan adalah kecenderungan ini adalah suatu berkah ciptaan Allah, Sang Maha Pencipta.

Dikarenakan kedua kecenderungan berpikir ini, baik dengan otak kanan maupun dengan otak kiri merupakan ciptaan Allah, maka ada baiknya kita masing2 membuka diri untuk menyelami dan menghayati keperbedaan ini, dengan sikap yang positif.

Untuk memahami fungsi otak kita, saya coba uraikan sebagai berikut:
Otak kanan — KREATIF — Bentuk, Intuisi, Lagu &musik, Warna warni, Simbol, Gambar, Imajinasi, Menghayal, Ingatan jangka panjang.

Otak kiri – ANALITIK — Bahasa verbal, Matematika, Logika, Angka2, Urutan2, Penilaian, Analisis, Linier, Ingatan jangka pendek.

Dari penjabaran di atas, kita dapat simpulkan betapa perbedaan “bahasa” diantara kedua sisi otak kita adalah tidak sama. Seorang yang memilih jurusan, profesi atau pekerjaan berdasarkan kemampuan otaknya dalam mencerna “bahasa” pikiran, tentunya telah terbiasa menggunakan bagian otaknya (kanan atau kiri) sehingga bagian tersebut lebih banyak berperan dalam kehidupannya sehari-hari. Sehingga adalah kurang tepat, bila serta merta seorang seniman musik dipaksakan bekerja untuk menghitung angka2, rumus2 dan analisa. Demikian juga sebaliknya, adalah kurang tepat bila serta merta seorang financial analisis dipaksakan bekerja untuk hal2 yang bebahasa symbol, imajinasi dan gambar abstrak.

Selayaknya kita menganggap kecenderungan ini bukan sebagai suatu kelemahan, tapi justru menjadi suatu kelebihan pada tiap individu. Kelebihan yang bila diolah dengan baik akan menghasilkan KEKUATAN dalam diri individu itu sendiri.

Bayangkan bila kedua kekuatan ini dapat digunakan secara adil, seimbang dan harmonis dalam suatu frame kehidupan atau kemitraan, akan menjadi suatu kekuatan yang luar biasa, karena tentunya bisa saling mengisi dan saling melengkapi. Penyeimbangan antar kedua fungsi otak kanan dan kiri inilah yang akan memberikan kontribusi pemikiran yang lebih baik daripada pemikiran yang hanya condong pada satu sisi otak saja. Namun sebagai individu yang berbeda, tentunya kendala2 pemahaman “bahasa otak” akan sedikit mengalami adaptasi, dan hal ini dapat diatasi bila kedua pihak saling bertoleransi dan berpikiran positif.

Berikut ini tip atau cara mengetahui apakah anda cenderung menggunakan otak kiri atau otak kanan.

Rentangkan dua tangan anda ke atas, kemudian lakukan suatu gerakan hingga kedua tangan seperti dibawah ini:

Coba anda perhatikan jempol tangan kiri dan tangan kanan anda berada dimanakah?

Jika “jempol tangan kiri” anda berada paling atas (dipuncak) maka selamat anda telah bertipe “otak kanan

Sebaliknya jika “jempol tangan kanan” anda berada diatas (dipuncak) maka maka selamat anda telah bertipe “otak kiri

Coba sekarang perhatikan gambar di bawah ini

Gambar tersebut berputar searah jarum jam atau sebaliknya?

Ternyata siluet wanita yang sedang berputar-putar ini tidak jelas searah atau berlawanan jarum jam. Kita sendiri yang menentukan arahnya, GUNAKAN KEMAMPUAN OTAK ANDA.

Ilusi mata ini sering digunakan untuk tes otak yang dominan, jika Anda melihatnya berlawanan jarum jam, maka otak kiri yang dominan, begitu pula sebaliknya. Kalau berputar searah jarum jam berarti yang dominan otak kanan. Sedangkan yang bisa melihat keduanya berarti otaknya seimbang baik kiri maupun kanan.
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Kadang kita melihat, ada sebagian anak tampak senang sekali dengan situasi sekolahnya. Otak anak diibaratkan seperti spons yang dapat menyerap apa saja yang terjadi dengan lingkungannya. Anak-anak seperti ini biasanya menunjukkan prestasi belajar yang baiknantinya.
Namun sebagian lain dari anak-anak tersebut tampak menunjukkan sikap negatif terhadap sekolah. Mereka tampak enggan melakukan berbagai kegiatan. Atau malah suka menyendiri dari pada bergabung bersama teman-temannya. Jika demikian, bagaimana mengharapkan anak-anak ini berprestasi kelak?

Yang sering terjadi kemudian, orang tua lalu menyalahkan guru dan sekolah karena rendahnya motivasi anak-anak mereka untuk belajar. Padahal, menurut Dr. Sylvia Rimm dalam bukunya Smart Parenting , How to Raise a Happy Achieving Child , orang tua memiliki pengaruh positif yang sangat besar terhadap pendidikan anak-anaknya.
Berikut ini beberapa kiat/cara yang dapat diterapkan sejak dini untuk membantu meningkatkan keinginan si kecil belajar dan berprestasi di sekolahnya kelak. Tentu saja tidak dengan cara memaksa maupun menuntut, namun lebih pada berbagai arahan dan dukungan yang membuat anak merasa nyaman berkegiatan.

1. Menciptakan Rutinitas
Rutinitas membantu anak mandiri menjalani hari-harinya. Jika terus bergantung pada orang dewasa, anak-anak ini akan memiliki perasaan negatif terhadap dirinya, dan belajar bahwa orang lain akan selalu mengambil tanggung jawab dirinya. Akibatnya, aktivitas Anda juga terganggu dengan ketergantungan anak. Karenanya, ciptakan rutinitas sejak dini dengan membiarkan si kecil melakukan sendiri kegiatan rutinnya. Misalnya, bangun tidur, diikuti dengan membersihkan tempat tidur, menggosok gigi lalu sarapan bersama-sama Anda.

2. Pembiasaan Belajar
Anak usia pra sekolah memang belum memiliki beban akademis yang mengharuskannya belajar pada waktu-waktu tertentu di rumah. Namun tidak ada salahnya Anda membiasakan anak duduk di meja belajar yang disediakan baginya pada saat yang sama setiap harinya, dan untuk jangka waktu yang sama pula.

3. Meningkatkan Komunikasi
Komunikasi yang baik merupakan prioritas utama dari semua kebiasaan yang dapat meningkatkan keinginan anak berprestasi. Mendengar adalah salah satu bagian penting dalam komunikasi. Jika orang tua terbiasa mendengar anaknya berbicara, maka anak juga akan mendengar jika Anda berbicara. Menurut Dr. Rimm, jika orang tua memiliki kebiasaan bercakap-cakap secara teratur setiap harinya, anak akan lebih terbuka kelak ketika memasuki usia remaja. Terkadang, keengganan anak untuk berprestasi (underachievement) merupakan efek lanjutan dari komunikasi yang buruk antara orang tua dan anak.

4. Bermain & Permainan
Bermain merupakan sarana utama bagi anak untuk belajar dan permainan merupakan bentuk latihan yang bagus untuk menghadapi kompetisi. Manfaat mainan dan permainan, antara lain meningkatkan imaginasi dan pelampiasan emosi. Cobalah bersenang-senang bersama dengan menciptakan berbagai permainan dengan anak.

5. Menjadi Model Bagi Anak
Anak akan meniru perilaku orang dewasa di sekitarnya. Mereka menjadikan Anda, orang tuanya, sebagai model yang patut diikuti. Namun, tentu saja si kecil hanya akan meniru perilaku yang terlihat olehnya. Anda bisa mulai menunjukkan pada si kecil bahwa Anda sangat menyukai apa pun yang Anda kerjakan. Karena, jika tidak, si kecil akan meniru perilaku Anda yang gemar mengeluhkan pekerjaan. Bukan tidak mungkin jika nantinya si kecil akan sering mengeluhkan pelajaran maupun guru-guru di sekolahnya jika Anda tidak segera mengubah sikap.

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Brain gym (Senam Otak) adalah program pelatihan yang dikembangkan oleh prof. paul E.Dennison,PhD dan Gail E. Dennison sejak tahun 1970. Awalnya program ini dirancang untuk mengatasi gangguan belajar pada anak-anak dan orang dewasa. Dasar pemikirannya ,belajar adalah kegiatan alami dan menyenangkan yang dilakukan sepanjang hidup. Kesulitan belajar biasanya berasal dari ketidakmampuan mengatasi stres dan keraguan dalam menghadapi tugas baru.
Brain gym atau senam otak adalah suatu metode yang dilakukan untuk mengoptimalkan fungsi otak. senam otak dilakukan dengan gerak tubuh yang tertentu sehingga menimbulkan rangsangan pada saraf dan sel-sel otak. Gerakan itu meliputi gerakan tangan , kaki, kepala dan ada juga dengan cara menggambar angka 8 yang diulang-ulang. Setiap gerakan di berbagai anggota tubuh memiliki fungsi yang berbeda. Dan hasilnya sangat mengejutkan, kemampuan berfikir, daya tahan otak dan sebagainya. Semua itu akan dapat dirasakan bagi orang yang melakukan senam otak secara rutin dan teratur. Meski semua gerakan itu terkesan aneh tetapi semuagerakan ini tidak boleh diremehkan karena begitu besar manfaatnya.


Berikut manfaat senam otak:
1. Memungkinkan belajar dan bekerja tanpa stres.
2. Dapat dipakai dalam waktu singkat (kurang dari 5 menit).
3. Tidak memerlukan bahan atau tempat khusus.
4. Dapat dipakai dalam semua situasi termasuk saat belajar/bekerja.
5. Meningkatkan kepercayaan diri.
6. Menunjukkan hasil dengan segera.
7. Dapat dijelaskan secara neurofisiologi: “why learning is not all in your head”
8. Sangat efektif dalam penanganan seseorang yang mengalami hambatan dan stres belajar.
9. Memandirikan seseorang dalam hal belajar, dan mengaktifkan seluruh potensi
dan keterampilan yang dimiliki seseorang.
10. Diakui sebagai salah satu tehnik belajar yang paling baik oleh National Learning Foundation USA, dan sudah tersebar luas di lebih dari 80 negara



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