Arsip

Pendidikan Islam

Dalam catatan sejarah Islam, sudah dipraktikkan baik dalam bentuknya yang masih tradisional/konvensional, dalam “arti bentuk wakaf berupa benda-benda tidak bergerak maupun wakaf produktif berupa wakaf uang atau wakaf tunai (cash waqh) bahkan, wakaf tunai (cash waqh) ternyata sudah diperaktikan sejak awal abad kedua hijriyah. M Syafii Antonio mengutip hadist yang diriwayatkan oleh Imam Bukhari, menjelasakan bahwa Imam az Zuhri (w. 124 H) salah seorang ulama terkemuka dan peletak dasar kodifikasi hadist (tadwnin- al hadist) mengeluarkan fatwa yang berisi anjuran melakukan wakaf dinar dan dirham untuk membangun sarana dakwah, sosial, dan pendidikan umat Islam. Adapun caranya adalah dengan menjadikan uang tersebut sebagai modal usaha kemudian menyalurkan keuntungannya sebagai wakaf”.66
Menurut Muhammad Abu Zahrah, dalam bukunya Muhadarat fi al-Waqf (Pembahasan Mengenai Wakaf), “wakaf telah banyak dipraktekkan pada zaman pemerintahan kerajaan Bani Umaiyah yaitu di Mesir dan Syam dan daerah-daerah bagian Islam yang telah dibuka dalam pemerintahan tersebut. Harta wakaf ketika itu terdiri dari tanah, bangunan dan kebun-kebun. Bahkan pada zaman pemerintahan Hisyam ibn Abdul Malik telah dikukuhkan jabatan khusus bagi pengurus harta wakaf”.67
Muhammad Abu Zahrah juga menyebutkan bahwa “pembangunan Masjid al-Haram dan Masjid al-Aqsa adalah sebahagian daripada bukti sejarah di mana ibadah wakaf memegang peranan penting dalam pembangunan kehidupan umat manusia”.68
Di beberapa negara muslim saat ini pun aktivitas perwakafan tidak terbatas hanya kepada tanah dan bangunan, “tetapi telah dikembangkan kepada bentuk-bentuk lain yang bersifat produktif”.69 Ada beberapa Negara Islam yang memiliki manajemen wakaf produktif, diantaranya:
1.    Manajemen Wakaf di Mesir
Di Negara ini wakaf berkembang dengan menakjubkan karena memang dikelola secara profesional. Meski begitu masih juga ada masalah yang muncul dalam memenajnya, sehingga pemerintah ”Mesir terus melakukan pengkajian untuk mengembangkan manajemen wakaf dengan tetap berlandaskan syariah”.70
Pada masa Pemerintahan Muhammad Ali Pasya, ”perwakafan di Mesir tidak terurus secara baik sehmgga tidak memberikan kontribusi yang berarti bagi pembangunan ekonomi Mesir. Wakaf pada masa tersebut menjadi asset yang terlantar. Hal itu disebabkan konsentrasi pemerintahan Muhammad Ali Pasya terfokus pada upaya mewujudkan stabilitas politik internal dalam negeri dalam rangka menghadapi masuknya pasukan barat ke Mesir. Kendatipun adanya usaha meningkatkan perekonomian Mesir, namun wakaf tetap secara terabaikan. Dia berusaha mengembalikan tanah kepada petani sebelumnya yang diambil oleh negara. Ironisnya, petani tetap saja berurusan dengan negara”.71
Keinginan kuat untuk mengelola wakaf secara baik baru muncul pada masa pasca pemerintahan Muhammad Ali Pasya. ”Usaha pertama yang dilakukan oleh pemerintah Mesir adalah menertibkan tanah wakaf melalui penjagaan dan pemeliharaan serta diarahkan pada tujuan kemaslahatan umum sesuai dengan syarat-syarat yang telah ditentukan. Selain itu, pemerintah juga memberikan perlindungan kepada para mustahiq. Langkah selanjutnya yang dilakukan pemerintah adalah membentuk diwan al-waqf yang menjadi cikal bakal departemen wakaf”.72
Kendatipun pemerintah Mesir telah membentuk satu departemen untuk mengelola wakaf secara serius, tetapi ternyata persoalan lainnya muncul seperti tidak adanya rasa keadilan yang ditetapkan oleh para pewakaf (wakif), pengawasan dan pengelolan yang kurang profesional. Oleh sebab itu, dalam pelaksanaannya tidak jarang wakif dalam berwakaf tidak memperlihatkan rasa keadilan dalam masyarakat. Karena pada saat itu belum ada aturan yang mengatur bagaimana hak dan kewajiban wakif dan dengan pihak yang lain, sehingga terkesan aturan tersebut ditentukan wakif sendiri, terutama yang berkaitan dengan orang-orang yang berhak menerima harta wakaf tersebut. Kondisi demikian memunculkan sikap malas dan menurunkan etos kerja sebahagian mustahiq. Sebagian dari penerima wakaf hanya menggantungkan ekonominya dari wakaf itu saja, sehingga mereka malas untuk bekerja dan menambah deretan pengangguran dalam masyarakat karena di antara mereka tidak lagi punya etos kerja yang baik. Di samping itu, terdapat pula para nazir yang menyalahgunakan wewenangnya untuk melakukan praktek riba.
Melihat ketidakteraturan pegelolaan wakaf tersebut, beberapa kalangan masyarakat yang memiliki perhatian pada persoalan wakaf mendesak pemerintah untuk segera melakukan perubahan peraturan perundang-undangan wakaf. ”Pada tahun 1926 masyarakat mengajukan Rancangan Undang-Undang (RUU) kepada Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat. Tetapi ide dan wacana yang dikembangkan itu justru mengundang polemik yang panjang di kalangan masyarakat luas”.73
Pemerintah akhirnya mensahkan undang-undang tersebut meskipun proses menuju pengesahan itu membutuhkan waktu yang agak panjang. ”Pada tahun 1946 peraturan perundang-undangan tentang wakaf menjadi sebuah kenyataan dan menjadi sebuah putusan politik dengan dikeluarkannya undang-undang No. 48 tahun 1946 yang isinya mencakup terjadinya wakaf dan syarat-syaratnya”.74
”Pengesahan undang-undang tersebut menjadi harapan baru bagi umat Islam Mesir untuk mengelola asset wakaf. Akan tetapi ternyata setelah undang-undang tersebut disahkan, pcrsoalan muncul. Persoalan itu terlihat pada semakin tajamnya perbedaan antara pemeritah dengan ulama, terutama yang berkaitan dengan terjadinya wakal. Menurut undang-undang yang baru saja disahkan dijelaskan bahwa wakif boleh menarik kembali harta yang telah diwakafkan ataupun mengubahnya, tetapi tidak diperbolehkan untuk menarik wakaf untuk diri sendiri. Wakaf jenis inilah yang terbanyak beredar di Mesir pada masa sebelumnya. Misalnya, wakaf yang diberikan untuk kepentingan publik seperti masjid. Dalam hal ini wakif tidak dibolehkan menarik kembali dan tidak boleh mengubahnya”.75 Di samping itu undang-undang ini juga memuat tentang berakhimya wakaf muaqqat (wakaf yang dibatasi waktunya). ”Menurut undang-undang ini wakaf muaqqat hanya terbatas pada wakaf ahli, sedangkan wakaf khari tidak dibatasi waktunya. Dalam undang-undang ini juga dicantumkan tentang pihak-pihak yang berhak atas harta wakaf, nazir, kekuasaan nazir atas harta wakaf dan pengembangannya”.76
Pada tahun 1952 pemerintah melakukan revisi terhadap undang-undang ini dengan mengeluarkan ”Undang-Undang No. 180 tahun 1952 yang berisi tentang penghapusan peraturan wakaf ahli dengan disertai peraturan pelaksanaannya”.77 Namun, di dalamnya tidak dibahas bagaimana mekanisme pengawasan dan siapa yang bertanggung jawab serta bagaimana prosedur membelanjakannya. Inilah kelemahan pertama yang terdapat dalam undang-undang baru ini. Dengan kata lain, undang-undang ini ternyata juga belum dapat menjawab persoalan dan subtansi yang diinginkan oleh masyarakat.
Menyadari hal yang demikian maka pada tahun yang sama pemerintah kembali mengajukan rancangan undang-undang yang akhirnya ”disahkan menjadi sebuah produk hukum No. 247 tentang pengawasan terhadap wakaf khairi dan penertiban belanja pemeliharaan harta wakaf. Di samping berisi tentang bagaimana pengawasan, prosedur pembelanjaan, dan pemeliharaan harta wakaf, undang-undang ini juga mengatur tentang kebolehan wizarat al-auqaf dengan persetujuan Majelis Tinggi Wakaf, untuk menyalurkan apakah seluruh atau pun sebagian saja dan harta wakaf jika wakif tidak menentukan penerima wakaf”.78
Pada tahun 1957 pemerintah mengajukan lagi rancangan undang-undang wakaf yang baru yang akhirnya disahkan menjadi sebuah Undang-Undang No. 30 tahun 1957. Melihat ketentuan hukum yang ada dalam undang-undang ini, pada dasamya tidaklah banyak memuat hal-hal yang baru, kecuali sekedar menyempumakan dan meluruskan undang-undang sebelumnya. Adapun yang terbaru dari undang-undang ini hanyalah menyangkut tentang pendirian rumah sakit yang berada di kota Kairo, Kemudian pada tahun yang sama disusul dengan undang-undang (qanun) No. 152 tahun 1957 yang mengatur tentang penggantian tanah pertanian yang diwakafkan untuk tujuan kebaikan.
Berkaitan dengan pengaturan tentang penggantian tanah pertanian, pemerintah mengeluarkan undang-undang tersendiri, yaitu ”undang undang No. 20 tahun 1957 yang memuat tentang aturan lembaga perekonomian”.79Kemudian selanjutnya dilengkapi dengan peraturan ”No. 51 tahun 1958, yang merupakan penyempurnaan dari undang undang No. 152 tahun 1957. Dengan demikian sebagai negara yang mayoritas penduduknya muslim secara terus menerus telah melakukan proses pematangan dan penyempurnaan peraturan perundang-undangan wakaf dengan senantiasa merujuk kepada syari’at Islam. Salah satu hasil dari proses ini ialah pada tahun 1971 pemerintah berhasil membentuk suatu badan yang khusus menangani persoalan wakaf dan pengembangannya yang disesuaikan dengan Qanun No. 80 tahun 1971. Badan ini bertugas melakukan kerjasama dalam pengawasan dan memeriksa tujuan undang-undang wakaf dan program wizarat al-auqaf. Di samping itu, badan ini juga diberi wewenang untuk mengusut dan melaksanakan semua pendistribusian wakaf serta semua kegiatan yang sesuai dengan tujuan yang telah ditetapkan”.80
Dalam rangka memudahkan dalam pelaksanaan undang-undang ini, maka pemerintah membentuk struktur kepengurusan wakaf yang terdiri dari ketua badan atau lembaga dan direktur umum. ”Direktur umum dibantu oleh tiga direktur umum lainnya, yang membidangi harta benda dari pengembangan, bidang teknik (pengukuran) dan bidang pertanian. Di samping itu, kepengurusan ini juga dibantu oleh empat orang wakil menteri, yaitu kementerian pertanian, kementerian kependudukan dan kementerian ekonomi serta kementerian perwakafan. Kemudian terdapat juga penasehat dan majelis pengadilan tinggi yang dipilih oleh majelis dari seorang ahli hukum Islam yang dipilih oleh menteri perwakafan. Adapun harta benda yang dikelola oleh badan ini: pertama, harta yang dikhususkan oleh pemerintah untuk anggaran umum, kedua, barang yang menjadi jaminan hutang, ketiga, hibah, wasiat dan sedekah, keempat, dokumen, uang atau harta yang harus dibelanjakan dan sesuatu yang sudah menjadi haknya untuk dikelola sesuai dengan Undang-undang No. 70 tahun 1972. Kelima, hasil lain yang berguna untuk menmgkatkan dan mengembangkan harta wakaf”.81
Sebagai negara yang sudah cukup lama mengelola harta wakaf, Mesir telah berhasil mengembangkan wakaf untuk pengembangan ekonomi umat. Di antara faktor-faktor yang menjadi pendukungnya adalah: ”Pertama, pihak pengelola wakaf menyimpan hasil harta wakaf khair di bank sehingga dapat berkembang. Kedua, untuk pembangunan ekonomi umat, pemerintah khususnya Departemen Perwakafan ikut berpartisipasi dalam mendirikan Bank Syari’ah. Ketiga, Departemen Perwakafan melakukan kerjasama dengan pihak lain sebagai penanam modal untuk pendirian pabrik, rumah sakit Islam, pemeliharaan ternak, bank untuk perumahan dan bangunan dan lain-lain. Keempat, Departemen Perwakafan mengelola tanah wakaf yang kosong untuk dikelola secara produktif melalui pendirian lembaga lembaga perekonomian, bekerja sama dengan perusahaan besi dan baja”.82
Di samping itu, dalam rangka pengembangan wakaf departemen wakaf tidak hanya menanamkan sahamnya dalam skala besar tetapi juga pada penanaman dalam skala kecil. Misalnya, ”membantu permodalan usaha kecil dan menengah serta membantu kaum dhuafa’, menjaga dan memelihara kesehatan masyarakat melalui pendirian rumah sakit dan penyediaan obat-obatan dan poliklinik, mendirikan tempat-tempat ibadah dan lembaga pendidikan serta ikut serta dalam pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan dan kebudayaan”.83
Dengan demikian terlihat jelas bahwa manajemen wakaf di Mesir dikelola secara serius dan produktif oleh badan wakaf yang dibentuk oleh pemerintah dalam rangka membantu kepentingan masyarakat baik di bidang sosial, agama, pendidikan, ekonomi dan pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan. Pengelolaannya juga terdiri dari tenaga-tenaga yang profesional dan sistem pengelolaannya juga didukung oleh peraturan perundang-undangan yang memadai serta mudah untuk diterapkan.
2.    Manajemen Wakaf di Arab Saudi
Negara padang pasir pusat turunya agama Islam adalah negara kerajaan yang mewarisi ajaran Islam. Kerajaan Saudi Arabia berdasarkan syariat Islam dan konstitusinya adalah sebagaimana yang diajarkan oleh Islam.
Pemerintah kerajaan Saudi Arabia membuat peraturan bagi majelis tinggi wakaf dengan ketetapan ”No. 574 tanggal 16 Rajab 1386 sesuai dengan surat keputusan kerajaan No. M/35, Tanggal 18 Rajab 1386. Majelis tinggi wakaf diketuai oleh Menteri Haji dan wakaf, yakni menteri yang menguasai wakaf dan menguasai permasalahan-permasalahn perwakafan sebelum dibentuk majelis tinggi wakaf. Majelis tinggi wakaf mempunyai wewenang untuk membelanjakan hasil pengembanganwakaf dan menentukan langkah-langkah dalam mengembangkan wakaf bedasarkan syarat-syarat yang ditentukan wakif dan menajemen wakaf”.84
Disamping itu majelis tinggi wakaf juga mempunyai beberapa wewenang antara lain85:
1)            Melakukan pendataan wakaf serta menentukan cara-cara pengelolahannya
2)            Menenentukan langkah-langkah umum untuk menanam modal, pengembangan dan peningkatan harta wakaf
3)            Mengetahui kondisi wakaf yang ada.
4)            Membelanjakan harta wakaf untuk kebijakan menurut syarat-syarat yang telah ditetapkan oleh wakif dan sesuai syariat islam
5)            Menetapkan anggaran tahunan demi kelangsungan wakaf dan mendistribusikan hasil pengembangan harta wakaf tersebut menurut pertimbangan-pertimbangan tertentu.
6)            Menggambarkan wakaf secara produktif dan mengumumkan hasil wakaf yang sudah dikeluarkan oleh pemerintah86.
3.    Manajemen Wakaf di Yordania
Secara administratif, pelaksanaan manajemen wakaf dikerajaan Yordania didasarkan pada “Undang-Undang Wakaf Islam No. 25/ 1947”.87 Dalam UU tersebut bahwa “yang termasuk dalam urusan kementrian wakaf dan kementerian agama Islam adalah wakaf mesjid, madrasah lembaga-lembaga Islam, rumah-rumah yatim, tempat pendidikan, lembaga-lembaga syariah, kuburan-kuburan Islam, Urusan-urusan haji dan urusan fatwa. UU wakaf yang mengatur tentang peraturan UU wakaf No. 26/ 1966. dalam pasal 3, secara rinci disebutkan bahwa tujuan kementrian wakaf dan urusan agama Islam”88antara lain adalah sebagai berikut:
1)      Memelihara masjid dan harta wakaf serta mengendalikan urusan-urusanya.
2)      Mengembangkan masjid untuk menyampaikan risalah Nabi Muhamad SAW dengan mewujudkan pendidikan Islam
3)      Membakar semangat zihad dan menguatkan jiwa Islam serta meningkatkan kualitas keimanan
4)      Menumbuhkan akhlak Islam dan menguatkan dalam kehidupan kaum muslimin
5)      Menguatkan semangat Islam dan menggalakan pendidikan agama dengan mendirikan lembaga-lembaga dan sekolah untuk menghafal Al-Quran
6)      Menyosialisasikan budaya Islam, menjaga peninggalan Islam melahirkan kebudayaan baru Islam dan menumbuhkan kesadaran beragama.89
4.    Manajemen Wakaf Di Bangladesh
Disamping negara termiskin, Bangladesh juga merupakan negara terbelakang dengan jumlah penduduk yang besar, yaitu ”sekitar 120 juta jiwa dengan luas daerah 55.000 mill persegi”. Selain itu, kondisi alam seringkali kurang menguntungkan karena negara ini termasuk sering tertimpah bencana banjir dengan angin topan. Peningkatan populasi Bangladesh juga cukup padat, yaitu 717 orang per km persegi dan juga termasuk salah satu dari negara yang mempunyai sumber daya alam yang sangat terbatas. Berbagai dimensi kemiskinan ini antara lain tercermin dari penurunan pendapatan sektor pertanian, ketidakmerataan distribusi pendapatan yang cenderung menguntungkan masyarakat perkotaan, perbedaan gaji antara sektor formal dan informal, peningkatan dramatis dalam biaya hidup, mencuatnya beberapa masalah penemuan kesehatan masyarakat, pengangguran dan imigrasi internal.
Di Bangladesh wakaf telah dikelolah oleh ”Social Investement Ltd. (SIBL) Bank ini telah mengembangkan pasar modal sosial (the voluntary capital market). Instrumen-instrumen keuangan Islam yang telah dikembangkan,antara lain: surat obligasi pembangunan perangkat wakaf, sertifikat wakaf tunai, sertifikat wakaf keluarga, obligasi pembangunan perangkat mesjid, saham komunitas mesjid, sertifikat pembayaran zakat, sertifikat simpanan haji, dan lain-lain”.92

66 Ahmad Djunaidi, Thobieb Al-Asyhar, “Menuju Era Wakaf Produktif (Jakarta: Mumtaz Publishing, 2007), hlm. 27-44
67 Muhammad Abu Zahrah, “Muhadarat fi al-Waqf”, (Mesir: Dar al-Fikr al-‘Arabiy, 1971), hlm. 5
68 Ibid, hlm 5
69 Uswatun Hasanah, “Peranan Wakaf dalam Mewujudkan Kesejahteraan Sosial (Studi Kasus Pengelolaan Vakaf di Jakarta Selatan)”, Disertasi tidak diterbitkan, (IAIN Syarif Hidayatullah, 1997), hlm. 81
70 OpCit, Ahmad Djunaidi, Thobieb Al-Asyhar, “Menuju Era Wakaf Produktif (Jakarta: Mumtaz Publishing, 2007), hlm. 27-44
71 Ahmad Syalabi, “Mausu’ah al-Tarikh al-Islamiy”, (Mesir: Maktabah al-Nahdah al-Misriyyah, 1979), hlm. 357.
72  Uswatun Hasanah, op.cit.hlm 83-84
73 Pendapat yang berkembang pada saat itu terbagi kepada tiga kelompok. (1), kelompok yang berpendapat bahwa tidak diperlukan lagi aturan yang mengatur tentang wakaf dan seyogyanya lembaga wakaf dibubarkan, denagn alasan: a. banyaknya orang yang hidup bersenang-senang dengan tanah wakaf yang jumlahnya mencapai 1/8 (seperdelapan) dari seluruh tanah pertanian di Mesir dan tidak dikelola secara produktif. b. wakaf ahli menimbulkan pengangguran. c. sebagian nazir menyelewengkan harta wakaf. d. pertentangan antara para nazir, kekacauan pelaksanaan wakaf, dan perbedaan pendapat di antara para penegak hukum menyebabkan lemahnya lembaga wakaf. e. jumlah orangnya makin banyak menyebabkan bagian yang diterima masing-masing generasi semakin kecil. f. harta wakaf tidak terpelihara sebagaimana mestinya, baik mustahiq maupun nazir kurang memiliki rasa tanggung jawab untuk melestarikan harta wakaf tersebut. (2) kelompok yang mendukung rancangan undang undang tersebut untuk segera disahkan. Namun terhadap wakaf ahli dan khairi mereka sepakat dengan kelompok pertama bahwa jenis wakaf ini tidak lagi relevan dengan perkembangan masyarakat Mesir. (3) Kelompok yang mendukung semua rancangan tersebut dan menentang pembubaran lembaga wakaf, dengan alasan bahwa terjadinya kesemrawutan pengelolaan wakaf disebabkan oleh pengelolaan yang tidak profesional dan belum adanya aturan yang mengatur sistem kerja pengelola dan wakif.
74 Jumhuriyyah Misr al-‘Arabiyah, ”Qawanin al-Waqf wa al-Hikr wa al-Qararat al-Tanfiziyah”, (Kairo: al-Hai’ah al-Ammah li Syuun al-Matabi al-amiriyah, 193), hlm. 1-4.
75 Jumhuriyyah Misr al-‘Arabiyah, ”Qawanin al-Waqf wa al-Hikr wa al-Qararat al-Tanfiziyah”, (Kairo: al-Hai’ah al-Ammah li Syuun al-Matabi al-amiriyah, 193), hlm. 1-4.
76 Ibid, hlm 1-4
77  Muhammad Abu Zahrah, op.cit., hlm. 88.
78  Muhammad Abu Zahrah, op.cit., hlm. 88.
79  Jumhuriyyah Misr al-Arabi, op.cit., h. 34-37
80  Muhammad Abdul Manan, “Teori dan Praktek Perekonomian Islam”, diterjemahkan oleh M. Nastagin, (Yogyakarta: Dana Bhakti Wakaf, 1993), hlm. 385.
81   Jumhur Misr al-Arabi, op.cit., h. 149.
82 Hasan Abdullah al-Amin (ed), “Idarah wa Tassmir Mumtalakat al-Auqaf”,(Jeddah: Ma’had al-Islamiy li al-Buhuts wa al-Tadrib al-Bank al-Islamiy, 1989). hlm. 344.
83 Hasan Abdullah al-Amin (ed), “Idarah wa Tassmir Mumtalakat al-Auqaf”, (Jeddah: Ma’had al-Islamiy li al-Buhuts wa al-Tadrib al-Bank al-Islamiy, 1989). hlm. 344.
84 Ahmad Djunaidi, Op.cit, hlm. 27-44
85 Uswatun Hasanah, Op.cit, hlm. 83-84
86 Ahmad Syalabi, ”Mausu’ah al-Tarikh al-Islamiy”, (Mesir: Maktabah al-Nahdah al-Misriyyah, 1979), hlm. 357
87 Ahmad Djunaidi, Thobieb Al-Asyhar, “Menuju Era Wakaf Produktif (Jakarta: Mumtaz Publishing, 2007), hlm. 27-44
88 Ahmad Djunaidi, Thobieb Al-Asyhar, “Menuju Era Wakaf Produktif (Jakarta: Mumtaz Publishing, 2007), hlm. 27-44
89 Ahmad Djunaidi, Thobieb Al-Asyhar, “Menuju Era Wakaf Produktif (Jakarta: Mumtaz Publishing, 2007), hlm. 27-44
92 Ahmad Djunaidi, Thobieb Al-Asyhar, “Menuju Era Wakaf Produktif (Jakarta: Mumtaz Publishing, 2007), hlm. 27-44

Di dalam sejarah pendidikan Islam klasik, antara pendidikan Islam dan wakaf mempunyai hubungan erat. Lembaga wakaf menjadi sumber keuangan bagi kegiatan pendidikan Islam sehingga pendidikan Islam dapat berlangsung dengan baik dan lancar. Adanya manajemen wakaf dalam Islam disebabkan oleh sistem ekonomi Islam, yang menganggap bahwa ekonomi berhubungan erat dengan akidah dan syariat.

Negara adalah institusi pelaksana pendidikan yang paling penting. Negara adalah pihak yang bertanggung jawab terhadap segala urusan rakyat, termasuk dalam pendidikan. ”Sosok Ibnu Sina, Ibnu Kholdun, Ibnu Taimiyah, Imam Syafi’i dan ratusan ilmuan lain adalah contoh kecil produk sistem pendidikan Islam. Mereka sangat produktif dalam karya-karya monumental. Satu contoh kecil perhatian pemerintahan Islam dalam pendidikan adalah ketika Khalifah Harun al-Rasyid membuat keputusan: “Barangsiapa di antara kalian yang secara rutin mengumandangkan azan di wilayah kalian, maka catatlah pemberian (hadiah) sebesar 1000 dinar. Siapa pun yang menghafal al-Quran, tekun menuntut ilmu, dan rajin meramaikan majelis-majelis ilmu dan tempat pendidikan adalah berhak memperoleh 1000 dinar. Siapa saja yang menghafal al-Quran, meriwayatkan hadis, dan mendalami ilmu syariat Islam adalah berhak atas pemberian 1000 dinar”.

Selain subsidi dari pemerintah, sumber dana yang digunakan untuk pendidikan berasal dari wakaf. ”Wakaf merupakan bagian dari ibadah dan hukum Islam yang berkaitan harta benda. Sebagai sistem pendanaan pendidikan, wakaf menjadi semacam lembaga yang terorganisasi dengan baik dan menjadi mode di masa Abbasiyah terutama masa keemasan peradaban Islam”. Khalifah Al-Makmun dianggap sebagai pemrakarsa berdirinya badan-badan wakaf untuk lembaga pendidikan, sehingga berbagai kegiatan keilmuan, termasuk gaji para ulamanya dapat berlangsung terus dan kokoh.

Badan wakaf yang permanen dipandang sebagai suatu keharusan dalam mendirikan suatu lembaga ilmiah. Selanjutnya wakaf-wakaf ini berkembang kegunaannya bagi orang-orang atau kelompok-kelompok studi yang menyediakan dirinya untuk kesibukan-kesibukan ilmiah di berbagai masjid. Pemberi wakaf dapat menentukan kriteria syeikh dan pengajar yang memenuhi syarat. Wakaf kebanyakan merupakan aset ekonomi yang berjalan, seperti pertanian, rumah, toko, kebun, kantor dagang, pabrik, pasar dan lain sebagainya. Dana yang dihasilkan akan bervariasi sesuai dengan kondisi ekonomi waktu itu. Oleh karena itu tingkat kehidupan para siswa dan guru yang dibiayai oleh hasil wakaf berubah-ubah dari waktu ke waktu. Dengan wakaf pendidikan menjadi lebih baik.

Mahmud Yunus memaparkan bahwa ”Dar al-Ilmi di Kairo yang didirikan oleh Al Hakim bi Amrillah pada tahun 1004 M menghabiskan kira-kira 257 dinar setiap tahun dari kas negara untuk beragam keperluan di luar gaji guru dan karyawan. Dana itu digunakan untuk membeli tikar, kertas, gaji petugas perpustakaan, air, gaji pesuruh, keperluan para pengajar, perbaikan kain, pintu, menjilid buku, membeli tikar bulu dan permadani”.Ahmad, raja Idzaj membagi hasil pajak negara menjadi tiga bagian, dimana sepertiganya untuk membiayai pendidikan.

Wakaf yang menjadi salah satu sumber pembiayaan pendidikan dalam Islam dalam pengelolaannya juga menerapkan sistem sentralistik. Dimana pemberi wakaf seringkali menentukan pola pengelolaan harta wakafnya dan penggunaan yang jelas dari hasil wakaf tersebut dalam dokumen wakaf, tanpa mempertimbangkan kemungkinan-kemungkinan kondisi dan kebutuhan lembaga pendidikan tersebut di kemudian hari. Di samping itu pemberi wakaf juga sering menentukan dirinya sendiri atau ahli warisnya sebagai penanggung jawab dalam mengelola harta wakaf tersebut. Kondisi pengelolaan wakaf seperti ini bisa menyebabkan madrasah tersebut terlantar dan ditutup jika kurang pengawasan dan bantuan wakaf secara kontinyu.

Nahdlatul Wathan (NW): The Basis for the Development of Islamic Education in Lombok
Islam in Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara (NTB) is a unique phenomenon among various phenomena of Islam in Indonesia. The development of Islam in this area may be referred mostly to the great contribution of an important Islamic Organization in Lombok, i.e., Nahdlatul Wathan (NW). This organization has succeeded in creating the basis for the interpretation of Islam into its social and cultural contexts of Lombok society. To a large extent, Nahdlatul Wathan is also viewed to have equal position with such other organizations as NU in Java, As’adiyah in Sulawesi, and PERTI in West Sumatera. Nahdlatul Wathan is the base camp for the formation of Islamic socio-intellectual discourse as well as for the formulation of religious characteristics of Muslims in that area. In this respect, educational institution becomes a vehicle for the NW to achieve its goals.

From the outset, NW was an Islamic educational institution. Tuan Guru Zainuddin Abdul Madjid, a well known and respected ‘ulama in Lombok and the founder of NW, began his religious leadership by establishing educational institution soon after finishing his study in Mecca. The founded institution adopted madrasah system, a system that is considered as representative of modern Islamic educational system in Indonesia. His attitudes in this context was influenced not only by his learning experience in Madrasah Saulatiyah in Mecca but also by the demand of change following modernization in education sector by the Deutch colonial rulers in Indonesia. From the above description, one may say that Zainuddin’s intellectual career represents an era when the reformation and modernization of Islamic education had found its place in Indonesia.

Hence, at the beginning of its development, NW applied grading system. The level of education in NW is divided into three. First, iljamiyah level, it is a preliminary or preparatory stage which is usually prepared for children. The length of this level is one year. Second is tahdliriyyah level which constitutes the continuation of iljamiyah level. The participants of this level are usually those who have passed the iljamiyah level or those who have graduated from primary school. The students will graduate from this level after three-year length of study. Third is ibtidaiyyah level for those who have graduated from the previous levels. The students shall spend four years to accomplish this level.

The grading system of learning had never been known to Lombok community. It was therefore not surprising to find that Zainuddin received criticism from the local ‘ulamas who had been adopting the traditional pesantren system. However, in line with the growing changes within community, the madrasah system had eventually been accepted by the local community. Despite the absence of statistical data, it is beyond doubt that the number of students in NW increased progressively. This trend may have encouraged Zaenuddin to continue his efforts to establish educational institutions adopting semi-grading system.

From then on, the educational institutions have developed very rapidly. On September 3rd 1951, NW built 10 classes. One year later, in 1952/1953 NW opened several programs, such as four-year program of Madrasah Muallimin, four-year program of Madrasah Muallimat, four-year program of Sekolah Menengah Islam and Pendidikan Guru Agama (PGA, or Training for Religious Teachers). Furthermore, the Madrasah Muballighin and Muballighat were also opened in 1955/1956 to prepare the da’i (religious preachers). In addition, the four-year length of Muallimin and Muallimat program was added to become six-year length of study. The PGA program was also extended to become Pendidikan Guru Agama Lanjutan (PGAL, or Advanced Training for Religious Teachers). Later, in 1959, a six-year program of Madrasah Tsanawiyah and Madrasah Aliyah was also offered.

Having seen the development of NW educational institutions and realizing the demand to provide higher education institution for its alumni, Tuan Guru Zainuddin established an Academy of Pedagogy in 1964. Three years later in 1967 he also founded Islamic Higher Education Institution called Ma‘had dar al Qur’a>n wa al Hadi>th al Madjdiyyah al Syafi>‘iyyah, provided specifically for male students. In 1974, he opened another institution for female students called Ma‘hadah lil Banat. This institution aims to prepare female educators and preachers.

The development of other modern schools cannot be separated from the contribution of NW under the leadership of Tuan Guru Zainuddin who established and reformed educational institutions in that area. Undoubtedly, NW has given its great contribution in organizing Islamic education for Muslims, and to the development of Islam in Lombok.

The number of affiliating educational institutions under NW had grown increasingly. It was reported that Tuan Guru Zainuddin was busy attending the official establishment ceremonies of new madrasahs affiliated to NW, which central institution was in Pancor. East Lombok regency has the highest number of educational institutions affiliated to NW. By 2000, there were 377 educational institutions, including primary and secondary levels in the region.

The NW affiliated educational institutions also developed in other part of West Nusa Tenggara. In Central Lombok, for instance, there are about 216 NW affiliated educational institutions, representing the second rank in number after East Lombok. The next is West Lombok with 120 educational institutions. In Mataram, however, only 28 NW educational institutions are established. Besides West Nusa Tenggara, there are also some institutions founded outside Lombok. In 2000 for example, 11 institutions are found in Sumbawa, 7 in Dompu, from kindergarten to senior high school, as well as pesantren.

There is other important achievement of NW, which deserves to be mentioned here, i.e., the establishment of higher education level. Up to the present time, there are four higher education institutions under NW: 1) MDQH al Madjidiyah al Syafi’iyah wich enrolls 385 students; 2) Institute of Islamic Studies Hamzanwadi with 312 students; 3) STKIP Hamzanwadi with 754 students; and 4) University of NW Mataram with about 987 students.

Up to 2000, NW has about 806 institutions which consist of: 33 RA/TK (kindergartens), 309 MI/SD (Islamic and secular primary schools), 216 MTs/SLTP (Islamic and secular junior high schools), 94 MA/SMU (Islamic and secular senior high schools), 54 pesantrens, 34 orphanages and 4 higher education institutions.

In consistence with the spirit of reform in education as the basic foundation of its first establishment, all the NW affiliated institutions employ curriculum which adopts both religious and secular subjects. Recently, they use the curriculum developed by MORA for Madrasahs (MI, MTs, MA) and the curriculum of MONE for secular schools (SD, SMP, SMU). In addition, NW has developed its own curriculum to be implemented specifically in Ma’had Dar al Qur’an wa al Hadith (MDQH). This is because the ma’had is established to prepare generations of ‘ulamas, so that Islamic knowledge is to be more emphasized in the curriculum.

Based on the above mentioned data, it is obvious that NW has contributed significantly to the development of Islamic education in Lombok area. As a result, there are a number of modern educational institutions in Lombok, which provide Muslims in that area with knowledge to help them to live within the more developing socio-cultural condition of the society.

Independent Pesantrens
Recently, there has been a new trend regarding the development of Islamic educational institutions of pesantrens in Indonesia — and to some extent — madrasah, i.e., the emergence of independent pesantrens and madrasah, meaning those which do not have any affiliation with any established mass organizations. Another distinctive characteristic of the institution under discussion is that they tend to develop salafi religious ideology.

It has been known that most of Islamic mass organizations, which began to emerge since the beginning of 19th century, established educational institutions such as pesantrens and madrasahs as media to transfer Islamic knowledge and to disseminate the ideas of progress to the new Muslim generations. Accordingly, there are numerous Islamic educational institutions, pesantrens and madrasahs, which have affiliation — structurally or ideologically — with Islamic mass organizations. No less than 10.830 pesantrens all over Indonesia, in terms of their religious understanding, are affiliated with mass organizations such as NU, Muhammadiyah, Persis, Al Wasliyah, PUI, Mathlaul Anwar (MA), al Khairat, Nahdlatul Wathan (NW), DDI, Perti, GUPPI, and LDII. The same source of data also mentions that there are about 1.937 independent pesantrens.

Historically speaking, the phenomenon of independent pesantrens is not novel. Pondok Pesantren Darussalam, Gontor Ponorogo, East Java, as has been discussed earlier, is considered as the root of the emergence of independent pesantrens. However, unlike other independent pesantrens established subsequently, such as Hidayatullah and others, Pondok Gontor does not adopt salafiyah approach in their religious understanding.

It is still unknown as to the initial growth of independent pesantrens. However, it is estimated that their appearance closely related to the spread of salafiyah religious understanding in Indonesia during 1980s, the influence of which was signified by the emergence of Islamic groups called usrah. In terms of doctrine, they follow the earlier salafiyah groups such as Ibn Hanbal and Ibn Taymiyah, whose doctrines were adopted and developed by the later Muslim thinkers such as Hasan al-Banna, Sayyid Quthb through Ikhwa>n al Muslimi>n in Egypt and Abu al ‘Ala al Mawdudi through his Jemaat Islami in Indian sub continent. It is the salafiyah doctrines developed by those figures that are adopted by usrah group.

One main characteristic of this group is the employment of literal interpretation of sacred text. Thus, this group can be recognized for their exclusive physical appearance. For example, male members of the group wear jubah or long robe and they usually keep their beard grows. Meanwhile, female members wear jubah and jilbab (veil), which cover all parts of their bodies except eyes and palms of hands. This is because in their understanding, Muslim women are forbidden to show all parts of their bodies except eyes and palms of hands to non-Muhrim men.

In Indonesia, the groups have gained their popularity in most of respected campuses such as Universitas Indonesia (UI), Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB), Universitas Gajah Mada (UGM) and Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB). On the contrary, they do not develop in Islamic Universities such as in Institute Agama Islam Negri (IAIN, or State Institute of Islamic Studies). It was only after the collapse of Suharto regime that those groups, who called themselves as Lembaga Dakwah Kampus (LDK), began to exist and develop in Islamic Universities. The groups become influential and significant social and religious movements in Indonesia. At political level, Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS), a growing Islamic political party, gains supports from these groups.

At the outset, usrah groups fight to achieve their goals through an Islamic movement, called “tarbiyah movement”. This movement is an Islamization movement of society through a long term process and in all aspects of their lives. “Tarbiyah” is understood not only as an educational institution but also as a struggle for the realization of Muslim Society (Anne Sofie Roald, 1994: 14). The movement emphasizes its efforts mainly to the purification of tawhi>d and the struggle to apply shari>‘ah (Islamic Law). Islamic shari>‘ah is not only understood as its implementation as positive law, but also the implementation of Islamic teachings in all aspects of life. Above all, they believe that Islam has provided complete and comprehensive social, political, and educational systems as guidance. For this reason, dialogue between Islam and modernity is, according to this group, considered not only unimportant but also unnecessary because of the perfection of Islam.

Pesantren Hidayatullah in this context can be seen as a realization of the contextualization of salafiyah understanding of Islam. This view is represented in the teachings developed by Ustadz Abdullah Said who aspires to build Jamaah Islamiyah (Islamic community), a concept which indicates the total implementation of Islamic teachings in the life of the community. The concept of jamaah is in fact not a new idea in the context of Islamic movement. The notion of jamaah is usually put side by side with other concepts such as h}izb (party) or harakah (movement). However, the term jamaah is used in wider context. The term is often understood as referring to Islamic group which excels other groups. Moreover, the term is used to refer to the group which claims that the most correct and right solutions is those originated from their own group.

Although the concept of jamaah offered by Abdullah Said does not necessarily signify the above mentioned meanings, one cannot deny the existing relationship between Islamic movements in Islamic world with his ideas. In order to achieve his goal, Abdullah Said created a unique formulation which is different from that of other groups. He employs the history of the Prophet as strategy and model of the movement. The historical stages of the Prophet Muhammad life are the main inspiration to prepare some steps to build the idealized Muslim society. Based on this description, it is clear that Abdullah Said and his Pesantren Hidayatullah is part of groups which adopt and develop salafiyah religious understanding.

Pesantren Hidayatullah: A Brief Profile

Pesantren Hidayatullah is located on 120 hectare land in the outskirts of Balik Papan. Since its first official establishment ceremony in August, 5th 1976 by the Ministry of Religious Affairs, it has attracted the attention of many people for reasons. First, after almost one decade of operation, in 1984 pesantren Hidayatullah received KALPATARU Award, an award given by the Indonesian government for the environmental achievement. This award was given by President Soeharto. It is not surprising that the period of 1980s was called by the head of pesantren as an era of resurgence, promotion and development. From then on, Pesantren Hidayatullah has been visited by many government officials from Jakarta and East Kalimantan. In relation to the visits by the government officials — and other important events which will be elaborated below — it can be stated that Pesantren Hidayatullah has had close relationship with the government.

Second, two decades after its establishment, in 2002, this pesantren made another head line news for the accusation of its involvement in terrorism. The source of the news is a report by Jane Parlez, the New York Time (December 2002) which states that Hidayatullah is one of terrorism network in South East Asia. One year later, this statement was re-affirmed in a report by International Crisis Group (ICG), Jemaah Islamiyyah in South East Asia: Damage but Still Dangerous. Basically, the later report was only highlighting the accusation of Jane Parlez by stating that Pesantren Hidayatullah is one of “Ivy League” where the radical Muslims were graduated and received education and training. This news consequently brought about negative image of the pesantren. To some extent, the effect of the publication on that issue hindered the activities of pesantren and destructed the good relations of pesantren with other institutions or with foreign companies in Balik Papan.

In a book entitled 20 tahun Pondok Pesantren Hidayatullah Pusat Balik Papan (1972-1992), which is often used as source for research on the history of the pesantren, the stages of the development of the pesantren is mentioned. This book was written under direct supervision of Ustadz Abdullah Said. Thus, it can be said that the book is an official representation of pesantren’s views. In this book, yearly development of pesantren during the last two decades under discussion is elaborated in more detailed manner. However, this periodization is not employed in this paper. Instead, it divides the development of pesantren Hidayatullah into two main periods, i.e., the period under the leadership of Ustadz Abdullah Said and the later period or the period of Hidayatullah as mass organization. In discussing the first period, this paper will refer mostly to the book as the main source. Meanwhile, for the following periods this paper will employ other sources.

Pesantren Hidayatullah is located in Teritip village, East Balik Papan. The distance from pesantren to Balik Papan is about 32 km eastward. This pesantren was established by Ustadz Abdullah Said, a respected figure from Makassar. He was supported by some of his close friends who later became the first teaching staff of the pesantren. They are, to name a few, Hasan Ibrahim (Pesantren Krapyak, Yogyakarta), Usman Palese (Pesantren Persis, Bangil), Hasyim (Pesantren Modern Darussalam, Gontor) and Nasir Hasan (an activist of Majlis Tarjih Muhammadiyah, Yogyakarta). The four figures, together with Abdullah Said who led the pesantren until he passed away in 1998, are known as the founding fathers of Pesantren Hidayatullah. Their various educational backgrounds and the spirit of independence that they shared became strong motivation to make the pesantren to be an independent institution from any established mass organizations in Indonesia.

Balik Papan was chosen as the location for the pesantren because of the analysis of Muhammad Said on social fact in that area. According to Hasan Ibrahim — one of the founding fathers of Pesantren Hidayatullah who is recently a member of Shari>‘ah council of the Central Board of Hidayatullah — there are two reasons behind the preference of Balik Papan as the location of the Pesantren. First, in the beginning of 1970s there was no pesantren in Balik Papan. According to Abdullah Said, Balik Papan was an area where dakwah activity was absent. Second, Balik Papan has potentiality to develop rapidly because the exploration of natural resources of East Kalimantan was centralized in this city. In this respect, the increase number of workers and the development of industrial city demanded the presence of religion as the guide for the community.

The establishment of pesantren Hidayatullah was initiated by training activities for dakwah (missionary) cadres, an activity that had been practiced by Abdullah Said himself when he was still in his hometown, Makassar. Training for dakwah cadres is called Training Centre (TC). The first training was held under the umbrella of Pemuda Muhammadiyah in Balik Papan at the house of Haji Mohammad Rasyid, one of the respected figures from Sinjai, South Sulawesi. This person later became Abdullah Said’s father in law. This activity then later developed to become Kulliyyatul Muballighin with more complex materials of learning. In due course, the participants of TC and Kulliyyatul Mulaballighin increased. By then, a dispute occurred between Muhammad Said and his father in law on whether or not the participants should be asked to pay tuition fees. According to Muhammad Said, since the activities are part of Dakwah, they should be free of any charges. Haji Muhammad Rasyid as a donator, however, viewed that the fee is necessary to keep the activities going. It was because of this unresolved issue that the two figures were separated, and it was also the reason for Abdullahs Said’s divorce. The disagreement marked the initial process of the establishment of Pesantren Hidayatullah.

With the support of Mukhtar Pae, a local attorney from Makassar, the TC and Kulliyyatul Muballighin activities were still run. However, they were organized in different locations and under the more “unfortunate” circumstances. Despite the changes, some important figures of Muhammadiyah such as A.R. Fakhruddin, Hamka and Abdul Kahar Muzakkir used to teach and gave their supports. In 1975, having passed the period of what the so-called “mourning and tearful years,” Pesantren Hidayatullah received one hectare of wakaf land located in Karang Bugis. It is a strategic site, since it is located in the very center of Balik Papan city and close to Bugis community.

One year later, in 1976, the head of pesantren felt the need to have bigger location to implement his ideas to build Islamic community, called jamaah. With the assistance of Balik Papan Major, Asnawi Arbain, the pesantren was given other five hectares of wakaf land from haji Darmawan in Gunung Tambak, Teritip, Balik Papan, which became the first assets to develop the pesantren. It is still in the same time that the pesantren was officially opened by the Minister of Religious Affairs in 1976, despite the ongoing process of the establishment of buildings which was not finished yet at that time. From then on, the area of pesantren continuously expanded, and currently it possesses approximately 140 hectares.

The data show that Pesantren Hidayatullah has about 130 branches spread out in several cities in Indonesia such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Manado, Dumai, Mamuju, Toli-Toli, Sorong, Manokwari, Fakfak, Jayapura, Gebe-North Maluku, Ambon, Bontang, Samarinda, Berau, Pasir, Pontianak, Ujung Pandang, Palu, Adonara-NTT, Nunukan, Palembang, Merauke, Bandung, Mataram, Yogyakarta, Jember, and Semarang. In 2000, this number increased to 140 branches (DPP Hidayatullah, 2000).

It is mentioned earlier that Pesantren Hidayatullah focuses especially on training activities for dakwah cadres. From its very inception, the Pesantren was aimed by Abdullah Said to produce dakwah cadres as well as to build community or, as termed by Said, jamaah, in which Islamic teachings are implemented. It is not surprising then to see that in its first development, the main activities of pesantren Hidayatullah were trainings and pengajian (informal group learning) delivered periodically (weekly and monthly). Furthermore, Pesantren Hidayatullah also offered formal education programs such as Madrasah Ibtidaiyah, established in 1984, Madrasah Tsanawiyah in 1987, and Madrasah Aliyah in 1990. In terms of curriculum, those different levels of madrasah adopt the one developed by MORA. Accordingly, the students also join national exams held by MORA. This phenomenon indicates that the head of pesantren prefers not to get involved in the debate over the percentage of religious and non-religious subjects in Madrasah curriculum. Instead, the head pesantren decides to adopt MORA curriculum and includes other Islamic courses, which are not designed in the curriculum. This curriculum modification is commonly adopted by other pesantrens which face similar problem.

Pesantren Hidayatullah introduces what the so-called “integrated curriculum,” in which religious and secular subjects are viewed as an integral entity. In addition, all aspects of education of the Pesantren including its facilities and activities are directed towards the main goal of the Pesantren. Consequently, in addition to adopts the curriculum developed by MORA, through which students receive bigger proportion of secular subjects, the pesantren also delivers religious courses — which are in line with the mission of the Pesantren — outside the school hours.

Pesantren Hidayatullah has attracted many young generations especially those of in-campus mosques activists. In terms of teachings, there is similarity between Abdullah Said’s views and those of other Muslim intellectuals such as Imaduddin Abdurrahim, an important figure in Islamic movement in Salman Mosque. However, the former uses pesantren as a vehicle to establish his movement, while the later, frequently called Bang Imad, employs dakwah activities in campus mosques. There are some concepts introduced during the trainings such as modern jahiliyyah — a concept introduced by al Mawdu>di> and later strengthened by Syyid Quthb —, several attempts to eliminate thagut from our heart, and the establishment of jamaah Islamiyah, etc., as the foundations of the movement. One of ITB graduates who used to be Salman mosque activist and currently an activist of Pesantren Hidayatullah said that the reason for him to be part of Hidayatullah is the ideas and concepts of Ustadz Abdullah Said, which are considered in line with his ideals that he has sought so far, especially through his activity in Salman Mosque.

Because of emphasizing its activities mostly to trainings for dakwah cadres, Pesantren Hidayatullah seems to neglected formal education, especially during the first period of its establishment. There are many of its students who do not finish their universities. Ironically, the decision to drop-out of the universities came out as soon as the students start to join Hidayatullah. Their decision to terminate their study is mostly influenced by Abdullah Said’s lecturees, especially in relation to anxiety towards thagut attitude (this concept will be elaborated later), which is considered as dangerous for religious faith. According to Hasan Ibrahim, formal education at that time was not important. Instead of completing formal education for a degree, it is more prestigious to do dakwah or to spread out Islamic teachings in remote areas.

The greater emphasis to prepare dakwah cadres has influenced the model of education system developed in Hidayatullah. Since the expected qualities of its graduates are not their mastery of Islamic subjects such as Islamic theology (kalam), Islamic Law (fiqh), Qur’a>nic exegesis (tafsir), the prophet sayings (hadith), but their discipline and courage to perform dakwah, the goal of its curriculum therefore is aimed to the more practical purposes. Classical Islamic literatures (kitab kuning) are not taught in Pesantren Hidayatullah. Instead, it organizes trainings on disciplines and methods of dakwah to help the students in doing their dakwah mission. Abdullah Said’s lecturers were considered significant aspects in the process of preparing dakwah cadres. It may be stated that during the first period of its development, Pesantren Hidayatullah was anti-formal school system or at least it did not encourage its students to go to formal education. Accordingly, some of the cadres who came from universities or IAIN decided to drop-out.

This trend however, started to decrease by the end of 1990s, especially after the establishment of Madrasah Aliyah in the Pesantren. When Hidayatullah later opened Islamic university, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Syari’ah (STIS, or Higher Education for Islamic Law), the demand of human resources, who have degrees either to be teaching staff or administrative staff, was higher. For this reason, the leader of the Pesantren suggested the students who had dropped-out of universities — most of them had finished their courses and at a stage of working on thesis — to finish their studies. Some of the students preferred to finish their studies at one of Hidayatullah universities, i.e., Sekolah Tinggi Agama Islam Lukmanul Hakim in Surabaya. Other students who were interested in secular field of study also decided to finish their study in secular universities. The leader of Pesantren Hidayatullah, in fact, has still been searching for an ideal model of education to be developed at Pesantren Hidayatullah Balik Papan. This reality is not surprising, since the attention to formal school has just started lately.

The students of Pesantren Hidayatullah are not required to pay full tuition fees. The tuition is relatively cheap. The tuition fee for Kindergarten students for example is only 5.000 rupiahs, 10.000 rupiah for MI, 15.000 rupiahs for MTs, and 20.000 rupiahs for MA. In addition, the students are only required to pay 60.000 rupiahs for their meals and another 10.000 rupiahs for their accommodation. In total, a student of Madrasah Aliyah for example, has to pay only 90.000 rupiahs per month. Pesantren Hidayatullah Balik Papan is appointed to be an experiment model of school by Hidayatullah Central Board. Thus, in addition to its own income generated from its business, pesantren Hidayatullah Balik Papan is subsidized by the central office. This branch is also directed to become a social institution.

Pesantren Hidayatullah does not use centralized system. It means that each branch is allowed to implement its own policies including its curriculum, the amount of tuition fees, the number and levels of school programs (madrasah or school), which fit the need of local community. Moreover, each branch is also permitted to use other name beside Hidayatullah. Islamic Primary school (SDI) Lukmanul Hakim in Surabaya is a case in point. This primary school is one of favorite schools in Surabaya because of its “integrated curriculum”. With five million rupiahs for first registration fee and 350.000 rupiahs for tuition fee, this school is also considered as one of the most respected and the best schools in Surabaya. Consequently, only students of middle class Muslim families who can afford to study there.

Concluding Remarks
Variants of Pesantren and Madrasah in Indonesia

The above presented mapping about modern pesantren, sekolah Islam, public madrasah, traditional pesantren, and independent pesantren, describes the wide variety of Islamic education system in Indonesia. Therefore, Islamic education system is a big umbrella under which many kinds and models of educational institutions develop. In terms of religious ideological perspective, all the educational institutions vary, ranging from those with moderate-pluralist model — thus accept the notion of democracy — to those with extremist-radical — which incline to put the priority on the tyranny of majority.

These trends cannot be separated from the interaction of the institutions with several contemporary issues such as gender equality, pluralism, democracy and civic values. On the issue of gender equality for example, Islamic educational Institutions tend to be supportive, although the support from modern and independent pesantrens is small. On the other hand, traditional pesantrens have been more familiar with gender equality issue. This may be due to the visits and partnership of several non-government Organizations with the traditional pesantrens. Fiqh Perempuan (fiqh al-nisa>’ program, a special gender program for pesantrens which was designed by P3M (Perhimpunan Pengembangan Pesantren dan Masyarakat) in 1990s is an example of gender dissemination program that is relatively successful. It is not surprising thus to see the emergence of many figures and works on gender equality. Kyai Sahal Mahfudz, the general chairman of NU and the head of pesantren in central Java; Kyai Husein Muhammad, the head of pesantren in Cirebon, and Masdar F. Mas’udi, the director of P3M are only a few examples of figures from traditional pesantren who show great interest in gender equality issues. They may be called as the spokespersons of gender equality of pesantrens.

With regard to the issue of democracy, pesantrens also have shown their support. They participate in activities which have some thing to do with the implementation of democracy, such as general election. For some of Islamic groups, democracy — through parliamentary system — is used to implement regulations with the spirit of Islam. For example, by the end of last year, 23 November 2005, the government of Tangerang district produced regulation to ban prostitution. This regulation no.8, 2005, became controversial because there are some points that are considered as discriminative to women. The regulation no 4 for example, states that women who go out and wandered around during night will be accused as prostitutes and will be arrested. And this kind of regulation is seemingly it to be also regulated in other districts.

There is big controversy among Islamic educational circle on the issue of pluralism. This controversy is provoked by a fatwa of Majelis Ulama Indonesia (MUI, or Indonesian Ulama Consultative) in 2005 which states that pluralism is prohibited in Islam. There is also similar debate on the response towards the West. The view on the West is an important issue in Islamic world, including Islam in Indonesia. There have been views among Indonesia Muslims especially pesantren, madrasah and schools that the West is identical with norms contradictory to Islam. The West is seen not only as similar to Christianity but also to moral decadence such as free-sex. The West is the competitor of Islam. The reminiscence of Crusade then interconnects with the spread of Western culture, which, in the view of some Muslims, is free of value. All of these points have created negative generalization of Muslims in pesantrens, madrasah and Sekolah Islam towards the West.

The variety of Islamic educational institutions illustrates the dynamic of Islam in Indonesia, which has been searching for its form, especially in the context of modern and contemporary development. Despite the fact that there are pesantrens which embrace the spirit of fundamentalism, it is important to note that it is just a minor phenomenon. The majority of pesantrens in Indonesia are run with the spirit of moderate Islam. However, the campaign about the idea of moderate Islam which brings the values of democracy, tolerance, pluralism and civil society is not well-promoted.

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[1]Under MONE there are TK (Taman Kanak-kanak, or kindegarthen), SD (Sekolah Dasar, or Elementary School), SMP (Sekolah Menengah Pertama, or Junior High School), SMA (Sekolah Menengah Atas, or Senior High School), sekolah-sekolah kejuruan (vocational schools) and Perguruan Tinggi Umum (Secular Universities); under MORA there are RA (Raudhatul Athfal), MI (Madrasah Ibtidaiyah), MTs (Madrasah Tsanawiyah), MA (Madrasah Aliyah), and Islamic Higher Education.

[2]Law No. 20 2003 on National Education System as the product of reformation era is regarded as allowing more space to Islamic education system—madrasah and pesantren— to develop than the previous law (Law No.4, 1950 which was re-enacted by the Law No. 12 1954 and law No. 2 1989).

[3]Chapter VII, passage 2, law No.4, 1950.

[4]Chapter I, passage 2, law No. 4, 1950.

[5]The Indonesian government has promoted the 9-year compulsory education for every Indonesian child since 1993/1994. It means every single Indonesian child is obliged to complete at least his or her 6-year elementary school (SD/MI) plus 3 –year secondary school (SMP/MTs).

[6]Formerly, there was rivalry between the two institutions. Under the atmosphere of “stream- politics” MONE was considered as the representative of nationalists and Christian groups, while MORA was the representative of Muslim group. However, as the of “stream-politics” in Indonesia desreases, such grouping ends. The case of A. Malik Fajar, the former Minister of MORA who later was appointed as the Minister of MONE is an example how that such grouping does not exist anymore.

[7]Based on data of 2002, generally speaking, about 43% of parents of madrasah students only finish their elementary education (SD); 45% are farmers; and 36% do not have stable income. Meanwhile, the following is the comparison between the fee of an individual student of madrasah and that of secular elementary school: it is 182.700 rupiah per per student/ a yesr for SD; 36.595 rupiah per student/ a year (1999-2000) for MI. For SMP level, each student has to pay 681.957 rupiah per year, while each Mts student has to spend 64.255 rupiah per year. Each SMU student has to spend 1.019.025 rupiah per year while an 133.430 rupiah has to be paid by each of MA student per year. From the above mentioned data, it can be said therefore that generally, tuition fee of madrasah is cheaper than that of secular school.

[8]See the final report Studi Pengembangan Sub-Sektor Pendidikan Madrasah pada Proyek Peningkatan Perguruan Agama Islam Tingkat Menengah ADB Loan 1519-INO, Jakarta: PT Amythas Experts and Associates, 2003, 5.

[9]Statistical data of Pondok Pesantren Indonesia 2002-2003, MORA and statistical data of Madrasah Indonesia 2002-2003, MORA.

[10]According to the available data, there are about 250 pesantrens founded by Gontor alumni.

[11]It is important to emphasize here that in 2004, MONE performed accreditation of KMI. Some of KMI were accreditated and as a result their alumni were allowed to register to state universities and they were exempted from the requirement to have state certificates. Final report on accreditation of KMI, PPIM UIN Jakarta, 2004.

[12] Comparative religion course is not taught in traditional pesantrens.

Resource

Change in ideas of knowledge in complex societies and the means by which such ideas are transmitted result from continual struggle among competing groups within society, each of which seeks domination or influence … Thus the forms of knowledge shaped and conveyed in education systems … must be considered in relation to the social distribution of power. Dale Eickelman (1978), “The Arts of Memory: Islamic Education and Its Social Reproduction”. Comparative Studies in Societies and History, pp. 485-516.

Introduction

Indonesia has a unique education system. In addition to secular education system, where most of the students enjoy their education, there also exists Islamic education system for some of Muslim children. Both mainstreams of education system are under the supervision of two different ministries. On the one hand, the secular schools from elementary to university levels are supervised by the Ministry of National Education (MONE). On the other hand, Islamic educational institutions for all levels are under the administration of the Ministry of Religious Affairs (MORA).[1] Given the two mainstreams of education, Indonesia is regarded by some as adopting dualistic education system.

The Islamic education system constitutes pivotal and inseparable part of national education system. Islamic educational institutions, throughout their history, have contributed significantly to the development of Indonesian education. Besides producing Muslim scholars, they have developed also Islamic tradition in Indonesia. In spite of these contributions, however, the Islamic education does not become the center in the development of national education system. The marginalization of Islamic education by the colonial administration, followed by the subsequent government of independent Indonesia, resulted in Islamic education being regarded as the second class of education system. Amid such a situation, however, the Islamic education system has gone through significant developments.

Following the collapse of Suharto regime in 1998, Islamic education system gained momentum to develop itself, as illustrated by the following indicators: First, the number of madrasah (Islamic school) and pesantren (Islamic boarding school) with modern management have grown progressively in big cities. Second, most of madrasahs and pesantrens have been recently trying to combine a balanced portion of both secular and Islamic knowledge. Third, there has emerged sekolah Islam (modern Islamic school), a new genre of Islamic education system in Indonesia. This kind of school, which constitutes the later development of madrasah and pesantren, has distinctive characteristics. As will be discussed later, sekolah Islam is under the jurisdiction of MONE, and it emphasizes practical Islamic learning.

Those developments have brought Islamic education system into a new atmosphere. Madrasah, pesantren, and sekolah Islam have not been considered as marginal education anymore. Recently, the three kinds of Islamic educational institutions become urban phenomena, and some of them being regarded “favorite schools” for Indonesian middle class Muslim community. This constitutes a new trend of Islamic education in Indonesia, which gains wide opportunity to develop following the reformation era.[2]

As far the recent development of Islamic education system in Indonesia is concerned, there are significant questions to discuss. The questions would be addressed not only to a number of factors which have made pesantrens and madrasahs still exist and keep improving, but also to matters concerning the issues on their ways to formulate their role amid the rapid changes which occur in Indonesia. Needless to say, Islamic education institutions have now been facing more complex challenges. In addition to bear a duty to produce Muslim scholars, they have to participate also in building social, political and cultural system of new Indonesia. Consequently, it is imperative to relate Islamic education system with such modern issues as democracy, civic values, civil society, good governance, and radicalism, especially within the context of new mapping of Islamic education system in Indonesia.

Escape from Dualistic System
As has been mentioned earlier, Indonesia adopts dualistic education system (Karel Steenbrink 1986: 1-9). On the one hand, Islamic education system, one of the two important education systems in Indonesia, is rooted in the tradition of Islamic learning, which has been practiced for centuries. Historically speaking, pesantren is considered the first Islamic educational institution in Indonesia. It is within this educational institution that such naqliyah knowledge as al-Qur’an, hadis, ‘ilm al-tawhid, fiqh, history of Prophet Muhammad., and mantiq (logics) are learned traditionally. Here, memorizing texts — especially texts of al- Qur’an, sunnah, and the works of ‘ulama —was the most common method in the learning process. However, in line with the gradually growing influence of Islamic revivalism movement in the beginning of 20th century, which began in the Middle East and followed by its subsequent spread to Indonesia, madrasah system began to be introduced by Indonesian reformist Muslims. For long time before independence, both pesantren and madrasah constituted two significant institutions in the context of Indonesian Islam. After independence, as has been discussed earlier, these two institutions have not only continued to exist but also gone through rapid development and become inseparable parts of national education system.

On the other hand, secular education system is rooted in the tradition of modern education brought to Indonesia by the Dutch colonial rule, which gradually introduced schools to indigenous people, especially aristocrat groups. In addition to teach secular courses and certain skills beneficial for worldly life, the Dutch schools also promised job offers for their alumni to become colonial government employees. Furthermore, they issued certificates for the graduates to prove that they have finished certain level of education or mastered certain skill.

This historical legacy has been maintained by Indonesian’s independent government. The Islamic education system has been accommodated by giving its management authority to MORA. Meanwhile, the management of secular education system has been entrusted to MONE. It is explicitly mentioned in the Law of Education and Learning System No. 4, 1950 — which was revoked by the Law No. 12, 1954 —, that “going to religious schools accredited by the Minister of Religious Affairs would be considered as completing compulsory education,”[3] the detailed regulation of which “will be regulated in separate law”[4].

Based on the above regulation, MORA has an authority to manage educational institutions from elementary to university levels, Raudlatul Athfal (RA or kindergarten), Madrasah Ibtidaiyah (MI or Elementary School ), Madrasah Tsanawiyah (MTs or Junior High School), Madrasah Aliyah (MA or Senior High School), and the State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN). Similarly, MONE has also a jurisdiction to supervise secular schools from Taman Kanak-kanak (TK or kindergarten), Sekolah Dasar (SD or Elementary School), Sekolah Menengah Pertama (SMP or Junior High School), Sekolah Menengah Umum (SMU or Senior High School), Sekolah Kejuruan (Vocational School), and University.

The positive impact of the dualism of education is that both national and Islamic educational systems have been competing to each other. However, the “rivalry” seemed to be unequal, since the government educational policy, until the end of the New Order, was more attentive to secular education and seemed to reduce the development of Islamic education. Accordingly, the Islamic education system, especially madrasah and pesantren, became marginal education system and considered frequently as “second class” education. This is because most of the Islamic educational institutions are privates. The majority of madrasah — around 80% of the total — are private schools, while pesantren are totally private institutions. Since they bear private status, most of the madrasahs have limited fund. Consequently, they cannot provide high quality of education.

Despite the high pressure by the New Order government, yet madrasah and pesantren remained exist. Moreover, some of them have even developed to become big institutions with good quality. A number of madrasahs and pesantrens, which will be discussed later, are not new institutions; they are old institutions, which have been struggling with all due forces to increase their quality of education. At the same time, the government policy towards education has gone through significant changes. The Law No. 20 of 2003 concerning National Education System puts madrasah and pesantren as integral parts of national education system. Regarding financial sources, the Law states that “it is a collective responsibility between central government, local authority, and society,” (article 46). It is also stated in the preceding article that “the governments (central and local) are fully responsible to finance compulsory education,” (article 36). The impact of these regulations toward madrasah is obvious, namely that Madrasah Ibtidaiyah and Madrasah Tsanawiyah in the context of their roles as the organizers of nine-year compulsory education would have the right to have full support from the government, regardless of whether they are public or private schools.[5]

At the conceptual level, those regulations have brought Indonesia out of dualistic educational system. Nevertheless, it is important to emphasize that education system in Indonesia has now been adopting “one roof” administration system. Indeed, MORA and MONE are still two different management of education in Indonesia. However, they gradually develop closer relationship and start to establish better cooperation than ever before.[6]

The Distinctive Characteristics of Pesantren and Madrasah
The development of Islam in Indonesia is inseparable from its Islamic education system, especially pesantren and madrasah. Both institutions have played pivotal role in determining the religiosity of Indonesian society. Not only do they function as the center for Islamic learning, but also constitute inherent part in the formation of socio-cultural and religious system of Indonesian Muslims. As far as the Indonesian Muslim intellectual discourse is concerned, both institutions have played significant role as centers for the publication of Islamic scholarly works in Indonesia.

Pesantren — with its other different names like pondok, dayah and meunasah — constitutes a model of traditional Islamic educational institution. An a>lim, or kyai, is the owner as well as the great teacher of pesantren. Most of the santri (students), both males and females, live in dormitory. Moreover, traditional Islamic knowledge, such as tafsi>r, h}adi>th, fiqh, and tas}awuf, are the main courses in pesantren. In addition, the learning process is conducted through traditional methods, without adopting grading and certification systems.

Unlike pesantren, madrasah in Indonesian context is a modern educational institution. The emergence of madrasah by the end of 19th century was a critique towards pesantren education system. As a critique, madrasah tried to offer a wider range of curriculum design, including Islamic and secular courses, besides adopting grading and certification systems.

The recent development of Islamic education in Indonesia has shown that the modern madrasah expands itself into pesantren. From the outset, the reformists Muslims have addressed their critique towards pesantren. Mahmud Yunus, for instance, a leading figure of Islamic education reform of the beginning of the 21st century criticized pesantren strongly by stating that “education system of traditional pesantren would only be able to produce one single ulama out of one hundred santris. The remaining 99 santris are merely contributors to purchase oil to prepare meals.” (Yunus, 1995: 58).

Apart from the critiques addressed by reformist Muslims, the pesantren community themselves have actually begun to realize the significance of education system reform in pesantren. By the end of 19th century, pesantren community began to develop modern education system by adopting madrasah (school) system. With this new system, learning process in pesantren is conducted through grading, curriculum, and examination systems. Moreover, it also adopted modern learning methodology. Meanwhile, texts of classical Islam in various fields of knowledge such as ‘ilm tafsir, ‘ilm h}adith, fiqh, usul al-fiqh, etc., remain studied in pesantren. Pesantren Tebuireng, Jombang, an old pesantren established in 1899 — to name an example — is among the earlier pesantrens which adopted madrasah education system. In its later development, Tebuireng also organized secular schools. Unsurprisingly thus, in Tebuireng we can find MTs and MA together with SMP and SMA. The education model developed by pesantren Tebuireng is now adopted by other pesantrens.

The expansion of modern madrasah system into pesantren continues to take place up to the present time. The data of MORA provides information to us that of the total number of pesantren (14,067), some of them operate MTs/SMP (27,8%), MI/SD (19,8%), and MA/SMA (16,7% ) (EMIS Data, MORA, 2002-2003). The impact of the expansion is that santris are now mostly going to formal education, and the number of those who are attending traditional education system in pesantren declines.

To some extent, madrasah has more advantages than secular school. First, madrasah possesses a strong root in community. This is because madrasahs are mostly established by community without any intervention of the government. People are donating their money voluntarily to support the necessities of madrasah. Second, given the voluntarily donation, financial issues in madrasah are relatively flexible in a sense that all the expenses of madrasah would depend on the real condition of the community earnings. Accordingly, a number of madrasahs in poor regions require a relatively cheap tuition fee for the students, while in few others it is more expensive.[7] Madrasah teachers are generally doing their jobs due to religious reasons as their dedication and devotion. Teachers in a number of madrasahs of remote villages sometimes are paid with minimum salary, yet they are committed to their profession. Unsurprisingly, despite the economic crisis in Indonesia, madrasah not only continues to exist, but also becomes an alternative education for a few groups of community. Third, due to the affordable tuition fee of madrasah, it is regarded as education institution which takes side with poor people. Fourth, in terms of the participation of female students, madrasah constitutes education institution supportive to gender equity. Fifth, madrasah is an educational institution which offers pious norms to the pupils. Madrasah students are generally not getting involved in a number of delinquency attitudes, such as fighting amongst students of different schools. Sixth, Indonesian madrasah is unique compared to similar educational institution in other Muslim countries, since the former gives a balanced portion between Islamic and secular knowledge.[8]

Map of Contemporary Islamic Education in Indonesia

According to data of MORA, there are about 14,067 pesantrens and 37,362 madrasahs throughout Indonesia[9]. The spread rate of pesantren in Indonesia depends on the density of Muslim population of a region and their religiosity. Accordingly, such regions with big Muslim population as East Java and Central Java have a big number of madrasahs and pesantrens. Indeed, these two regions are regarded as “santri regions”.

The figure of pesantren shows an increasing trend. The following data indicates the increasing number of pesantren along the years. In 1977 the number of pesantren was about 4.195 with approximately 677.384 students. The figure went through significant boost in 1981, in which the number of pesantren reached 5.661 with 938.397 students. Another boost happened in 1985, in which the number of pesantren was 6.239 with 1.084.801 students.­ Furthermore, the 1997 data of MORA recorded 9.388 pesantren with 1.770.768 students. Finally, as has been mentioned above, the figure increased sharply to become 14,067 pesantrens with 3,149,374 students.

The Islamic education system in Indonesia can be divided into a number of groups. First is pesantren group, including those which carry out madrasah and those which still maintain non-grading system. This group consists of modern and traditional pesantren. Second is madrasah group consisting of both public and private madrasahs. Third is Sekolah Islam group, which is regarded as a genre of modern Islamic education system of urban Muslim community. Each group will be discussed separately with an attempt to connect them to each other.

Modern Pesantren
As far as the history of Islamic education in Indonesia is concerned, modern pesantren can be regarded as new genre of pesantren. The Pesantren Darussalam of Gontor, Ponorogo, was established in 20 September 1926 by three brothers — KH. Ahmad Sahal, KH. Zainuddin Fannani, and KH. Imam Zarkasyi. This pesantren is also called pondok modern (modern pesantren), in a sense that it not only adopts madrasah system, but also teaches Arabic and English to the students intensively and practically. In daily conversation among the students within the pesantren, all santris are obliged to speak Arabic or English — they are not allowed to speak Indonesian. In addition, unlike the majority of other pesantrens, pondok modern Darussalam, Gontor includes the works of reformist Muslim thinkers in its curriculum. The works of Abduh, for instance, are placed as important subject matters in the pesantren.

The objective of Pesantren Gontor, as mentioned by Lance Castle (1966), is to produce kader Muslim (Muslim cadres) by combining the excellences of both traditional and modern pesantren education systems. In addition to secular subjects, the pesantren also urges the santris about the significance of art. Accordingly, music, sport and other extra-curricular activities are among the concerns of pesantren’s leaders. The pesantren is also intended to provide education capable of responding to Muslim challenges amid the socio-cultural life of Indonesian society which begin to enter modern world.

It is important to mention that Pesantren Gontor was established in the crucial period of Islamic development in Indonesia. Following the ethical politics implemented by the Dutch colonial administration, coupled with the establishment of international network with the center of Islamic reform in Cairo, Egypt, the Islamic education in Indonesia went through fundamental changes. This was marked by the establishment of new Islamic educational institutions, which adopt modern education system, instead of traditional education system of pesantren. The modern Islamic education institution — well-known as madrasah — then became an important part of Islamic reform movement during the early decades of 20th century.

Accordingly, in addition to introduce new system and instructional methods — ranging from adopting grading model with class division, employing text books as learning tools, to accommodating secular subjects in the curriculum — madrasah functioned also as a media for the dissemination of Islamic reform ideas. It became the basis to prepare new Muslim generations who are familiar with the spirit of modernism, an issue that at that time was an overwhelming discourse in Indonesia which started to enter modern world. Accordingly, kader Muslims to be produced by Pesantren Gontor are those who are frequently identified as “Muslim intellectuals”.

The self-definition of Pesantren Gontor as a modern pesantren, as has been mentioned, is basically aimed at attempting itself to be in contrast to traditional pesantren, which is to some extent identical to stagnancy of thought, and to ineffective as well as inefficient managerial system of education. Imam Zarkasyi, one of the founding fathers of Pesantren Gontor, is of the opinion that a modern pesantren should implement freedom of thought, effective and efficient management, and introduce santri toward modernity. Parallel to other reformist Muslim, he also invites Muslims not to be too fanatical towards a certain madhhab, since this would lead to the absence of the freedom of thought. Indeed, with regard to religious ritual practices, Pesantren Gontor is not fanatical to a certain madhhab.

As far as the relation of pesantren and modernism is concerned, the effective and efficient management are described that pesantren should adopt a good, accountable and transparent administration and accounting system. Moreover, the managerial system of modern pesantren relates to the leadership system of pesantren. In this regards, Pesantren Gontor from its inception came up with an idea of what is termed as badan wakaf, the highest body within pesantren in which discussion and decision making are conducted. Under the badan wakaf is badan pelaksana (organizing body) which is responsible of the daily affairs of the pesantren. On the other hand, the introduction of santris toward modernity is implemented by providing them with Arabic and English language skills, Boy Scout, skills, and sports — activities unusual for traditional pesantrens.

The manifestation of modern education of Pesantren Gontor can be seen from KMI (Kulliyatul Muallimin al-Islamiyah) system, i.e. a six-year secondary level of education (equal to SMP and SMU). In this respect, KMI constitutes a combination between madrasah and pesantren system. The decision to adopt this kind of education system was influenced by the school experiences of Imam Zarkasyi, from a pesantren in Solo, Thawalib of Padang Panjang in Sumatra, and Normal Islam School or also called Kulliyatul Muallimin al-Islamiyah. In addition, it is also important to note here his experience in establishing and being the director of Muhammadiyah Kweekschool in Padang Sidempuan. With all those experiences, Imam Zarkasyi then tried to combine pesantren and modern school. The KMI is a madrasah plus pesantren.

Thus, the concept of modern pesantren introduced by Imam Zarkasyi has become a blueprint and genre for the development of the next modern pesantren. Zarkasyi’s students who are now spreading all over Archipelago establish a number of similar pesantren pioneered by the kyai. During the period of 1970-80s, a couple of Gontor alumni established pesantrens in their own region. In Banten, Pesantren Daar El-Qalam was established in Gintung Balaraja; in Madura Pesantren Al-Amin was established in Prenduan Sumenep; in Central Java Pesantren Pabelan was established in Pabelan; Pesantren Modern Assalaam was established in Solo; and many others.[10] Those pesantrens are frequently called pesantren alumni (meaning the alumni of Gontor), the second generation which have influenced the model of other modern pesantrens in their later development.

It should be noted that in the course of its development, pesantren alumni are not always implementing the standardized model of Pesantren Gontor. The Modern Pesantren Assalaam, for example, has developed a different model. The full name of this pesantren is Pondok Pesantren Modern Islam (PPMI) Assalaam, located in Pabelan, Kartasura Sukoharjo, Central Java. At the outset, Pesantren Assalaam is a branch of Pesantren Ngruki, which will be discussed exclusively in this paper. In the beginning of 1980s, when Pesantren Ngruki began to operate, the capacity of the pesantren could not accommodate all the registered students because of an overwhelming interest of parents to send their children to Pesantren Ngruki. Consequently, a decision was made to find another location to accommodate the students. A spot in Pabelan village located in Kartasura was eventually chosen as location to establish a pesantren. The new pesantren was named Assalam. As a branch of Pesantren Ngruki, Pesantren Assalam received supports from Ngruki, including teaching staff.

In due course, Pesantren Assalam, which was established in 7 August 1982, has grown rapidly in terms of the number of students, even surpassing the number of students in Pesantren Ngruki itself. Approximately 2000 students have been registered in Assalam, while Ngruki has around 1500 students. The origin of learning system in Pesantren Assalam was an MDA (Madrasah Diniyah Awaliyah) which was conducted in the evenings. In 1982, to answer the request of neighboring community, a Madrasah Tsanawiyah was established by employing dormitory system. At this juncture, a pesantren system had begun to be introduced, in which students were studying extra courses, adopted from pesantren curriculum. A quite significant measure was taken by Assalam when it received a relatively spacious wakaf land (92,845 m2) from Abdullah Marzuki, a printing entrepreneur of PT Tiga Serangkai, Solo. Now, the property of Assalam is 10.223 ha lands, with 5.6 ha of them are wakaf lands.

At its very inception, the teaching staff of Assalam was supplied from Pesantren Ngruki and some of Gontor alumni who wanted to have teaching experience. Having been able to produce its own graduates, Pesantren Assalam then began to fulfill its own staff. However, the teachers, especially those who teach sciences, are from universities in Surakarta. There are some requirements for someone to be eligible to become teaching staff at Pesantren Assalam. In addition to the readiness of teaching relevant expertise, an applicant should understand the vision and mission of the pesantren. Furthermore, morality of the applicant is the most important aspect to consider in the recruitment process.

Assalam has developed as a big pesantren in Surakarta. This achievement is not only due to its consistency in implementing the concept of modern pesantren as has been introduced by K.H. Imam Zarkasyi, but also because of its attainment in developing modification for pragmatic needs. This can be seen in terms of curriculum and grading system. Although Assalam adopts Gontor’s curriculum, but it also implements national curriculum developed by MORA and MONE. As for grading or leveling system, Assalam implements its own system, i.e. Tsanawiyah (3 years), Aliyah (3 years), SMU (3 years) and Takhassusiyah (Tsanawiyah + Aliyah + 1 year).

The above grading system is actually out of the standardized grading model developed by Gontor, which implements the KMI system, in which Tsanawiyah and Aliyah are regarded as one single level, so that there is no graduation process from grade 3 to grade 4. This system has been maintained in Gontor up to the present time. As for curriculum, Gontor still implements the curriculum developed by K.H. Imam Zarkasyi some decades ago. Meanwhile, Assalam tries to modify curriculums developed by Gontor, MORA and MONE.

What has been performed by Pesantren Assalam is obviously contradictory to the principle embraced by K.H. Imam Zarkasyi, the founder of Pesantren Gontor. According to Zarkasyi a curriculum must be standardized, and should remain unchanged if necessary. He criticized the government policy which has changed national curriculum quite often. Once an educator is convinced that the curriculum he designed can be applied well, he has to implement the curriculum. However, it is worthy noted that by the time Gontor curriculum was developed, Zarkasyi was in a situation where curriculum standardization was not a national discourse. Now, his students face an era in which curriculum standardization is necessary to maintain quality of education. The adoption of national curriculum by pesantren alumni gained momentum in 1980s. Nevertheless, the characteristic of Pesantren Gontor which emphasizes Arabic and English languages is still maintained.[11]

Even though some of pesantren alumni have not been adopting Gontor curriculum anymore, few of them are still implementing the Gontor standardized model. Accordingly, there emerge terms: pure Gontor and non-pure Gontor. The pure Gontor is a term addressed to pesantrens which follow Gontor tradition per se. Meanwhile non-pure Gontor are those which, in addition to adopt Gontor’s curriculum, implement national and local curriculum. The emergence of terms pure Gontor and non-pure Gontor do not merely show the two variants of pondok modern, but sometimes they provoke conflict between pesantren alumni and Pesantren Gontor itself. Gontor desires pesantren alumni to imitate its model. Meanwhile, the later want to make modification and adjustment in line with community interests. Sometimes the conflict is more complex than merely a matter of curriculum and grading system, let alone pertaining social recognition and influence. Pesantren Al-Zaitun, located in Indramayu, West JAva, can be categorized as pesantren alumni. Panji Gumilang AS was the student of K.H. Imam Zarkasyi. Although Pesantren Zaitun was established few years ego, it has been going through so amazing development that provoked bad news and jealousy from other pesantren. It is informed that there is unharmonious relationship between Gontor and Zaitun, since they compete to gain influence and recognition from society.

There is another modification carried out by pesantren alumni, especially regarding Islamic ‘Aqi>dah course. Pesantren Gontor is considered not so strong enough in teaching ‘Aqidah that makes its alumni have various religious-ideologies. The Gontor alumni vary, ranging from a reformist Nurcholish Madjid, an intellectual who brought forth Islamic reform, to a conservative such as Kyai Khalil Ridwan, the leader of Pondok Pesantren Al-Husnayain. This phenomenon, according to Khalil Ridwan himself, who also the leader of BKSPP (Badan Kerjasama antar Pondok Pesantren) — a forum for Gontor alumni — is resulting from limited education of ‘Aqi>dah in Gontor so that santri experience ideological disorientation.

One thing to be kept in mind in discussing Pesantren Gontor and pesantren alumni is their contribution in establishing new foundation for the development of pesantren in Indonesia. Moreover, the modern education system of Gontor at the same time also introduced santri towards some principles of modernity. Besides various facilities, there are a number of significant aspects which can be regarded as being supportive to the implementation of modern principles, which can be taken from the courses in pesantren, especially fiqh, us}u>l al-fiqh, al-adya>n (comparative religion)[12], and Civics. These courses are potential to socialize the values of pluralism, because they admit diversity both in the idea and practical levels. It is the recognition of the existing different opinion that in turn leads the santris to have tolerant attitude, one of the significant values of modernity.

Sekolah Islam
Sekolah Islam (Islamic School) constitutes a new nomenclature of the 20th century Islamic education system in Indonesia. Similar to modern pesantren, sekolah Islam is also a critique towards madrasah. Although madrasah was initially a symbol of education reform, but in its eventual development it is considered insufficient to be regarded as Islamic educational institution. This stand point especially emerges from middle-class Muslim community, who genealogically have an attachment with Muhammadiyah, a modernist Islamic movement in Indonesia. The idea of sekolah Islam cannot be separated from the idea of Muhammadiyah, which has an objective to develop “HIS met de Qur’a>n”.

Sekolah Islam gained its momentum to develop when Indonesian community experienced what the so-called santrinization and Islamization, especially in the late 1990s. The establishment of the Association of Indonesian Muslim Intellectuals (ICMI), which obtained political support from the government, has become the second pillar of the growth of Sekolah Islam in Indonesia. Support towards sekolah Islam came from new generation of Indonesian Muslim. They are mostly alumni of secular universities, who possess good jobs — so that they can be considered as middle-class Muslim — nonetheless they have high religious awareness in line with their level of education which let them to be capable of accessing media of information about Islamic world in general. Most of them are activists of Islamic movements which use campus mosques as their basis, such as Salman mosque at ITB in Bandung, Arif Rahman Hakim mosque at UI Jakarta, Syuhada mosque in Yogyakarta etc. Their idols are Muslim intellectuals such as Imaduddin Abdurrahim, a significant figure in the process of cultivating cadres in Salman mosque, and an initiator of the establishment of ICMI. Both the education and religious experiences had made them aware of the need towards Islamic school other than madrasah. They wanted their kids to be able to enjoy good education in science and technology, but at the same time they want them to become religious people.

Sekolah Islam is under the supervision of MONE. The term ‘sekolah’ itself is employed to avoid the institution being under the supervision of MORA. Unlike other schools in general, sekolah Islam offers religious education in a significant portion, in addition to secular subjects. The difference between sekolah Islam and madrasah or pesantren lies on its emphasis to the practical aspect of religious education. On the one hand, madrasah and pesantren emphasize specific Islamic knowledge, such as ‘ilm al-h}adi>th, ‘ilm al-tafsi>r, fiqh etc. — besides such secular knowledge as mathematics, economics, natural and social sciences. On the other hand, sekolah Islam emphasizes more to the daily religious practices; it is intended to produce Muslim students who possess religious personality. In this regard, Islam is not emphasized on its cognitive aspect, rather in its practical one. Religion, hence, should be transformed to be social ethics.

Sekolah Islam enjoys modern facilities due to financial supports from urban middle-class Muslims. In sekolah Islam students may enjoy air-conditioned rooms, library, sport facilities, laboratory, computer, internet, and — of course — a well organized teaching-learning system, including extra-curricular activities. The sekolah Islam is administered by professionals, either in managerial aspect and curriculum development. Teachers, manager and administration staff are recruited through a very competitive selection process. In addition, they are mostly graduates of well-known universities in Indonesia. The competitive selection happens also in the student admission process. Consequently, the tuition fee in sekolah Islam is far more expensive that that in madrasah and secular schools in general.

Sekolah Islam Al-Azhar, or often called Al-Azhar Islamic School, is one of well-known sekolah Islam. Not only does it constitute the oldest sekolah Islam, but also it has branches in a number of big cities in Indonesia. Al-Azhar was established in 1960s by a Muhammadiyah figure, Haji Abdul Malik Karim Amrullah, well-known as Prof. Dr. Hamka, who was the leader of MUI (Majelis Ulama Indonesia). It is obvious that the establishment of al-Azhar has something to do with the idea of Muhammadiyah about “HIS met de Qur’a>n.” In its subsequent development, under the flag of Yayasan Pesantren Islam (YPI, or Islamic Boarding School Foundation), al-Azhar went through rapid growth during the last three decades. Its branches can be found not only in Jakarta and neighboring cities, but also in Cirebon and Sukabumi in West Java, Surabaya, even in Padang, West Sumatra.

Sekolah Islam Al-Azhar Jakarta is located in Kebayoran Baru, an area which is not only strategic, but also symbolizes the middle-class community. It offers different levels of education from kindergarten to senior high school. During the last five years, the Yayasan (foundation) have been developing Universitas al-Azhar Indonesia (UAI) headed by Professor Ir. Zuhal, M.Sc., the former Minister of Research and Technology during Habibie’s administration era.

During almost three decades after the establishment of Sekolah Islam al-Azhar there was practically no more Sekolah Islam to be established in Indonesia. It was only in 1990s, as has been mentioned, that a number of sekolah Islam appeared in many places, such as Sekolah Madania. This school is under the umbrella of Madania foundation, which obviously shows its relationship with Paramadina, an institute pioneered by Nurcholish Madjid. Paramadina itself is a forum of study for educated middle-class Muslims. The forum usually conducts religious discussion in a number of star-hotels in Jakarta.

Located in the outskirts of Jakarta — to be exact in Parung, West Java — Sekolah Madania manages a boarding school system. This constitutes an attempt to adopt pesantren system in organizing its education process. In line with the grand idea of Paramadina, Sekolah Madania promotes pluralism and multiculturalism. Consequently, it also enrolls non-Muslim students. Indeed, in spite of the limited number of non-Muslim students enrolled, Sekolah Madania is the first Islamic educational institution that pioneers pluralism and multiculturalism. In general, Sekolah Madania emphasizes character building of the students with a set of knowledge and skills as a response toward globalization.

While the initiators of Sekolah Al-Azhar and Paramidina came from intellectual Muslim with strong Islamic education background, the initiators of SMA Insan Cendekia, which locates in Serpong, Banten, come from educated Muslims with secular education background. The school was established in 1996, owing to the initiation of a group of scientists who worked in BPPT (Badan Pengkajian, Pengembangan, dan Penerapan Teknologi), a body under the Ministry of Research and Technology, which for a couple of decades had been led by BJ. Habibie, the former President of the Republic of Indonesia and general chairman of ICMI.

SMA Insan Cendikia aims at producing Muslim scientists who have understanding of both secular and Islamic knowledge. The following jargon says “the combination of Iptek (ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi, or knowledge and technology) and Imtaq (iman dan taqwa, or faith and piety),” which was popularized by BJ. Habibie himself constitutes significant basis for the development of SMA Insan Cendekia. In order to develop its curriculum, the school establishes communication with ITB (Institut Teknologi Bandung), IPB (Institut Pertanian Bogor), and the BPPT itself. By adopting boarding school system, like Sekolah Madania, the institution has an advantage of having scholarship network with Germany for their alumni. Lately, after Habibie began to lose his “influence” in BPPT, the management of the school is entrusted to MORA. However, this institution still maintains, to a large extent, its identity as Sekolah Islam with aforementioned characters.

Sekolah Islam can also be found outside Java. Of the most famous among them is Sekolah Serambi Mekkah in West Sumatra. Not only does it represent a model of Sekolah Islam, but it also develops a sort of religious attitudes which can be found in the member of pengajian kampus (in-campus religious learning) which politically become the basis of the constituents of Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS, or Prosperous Justice Party). The luxurious complex of Perguruan Serambi Makkah: Islamic Boarding School is located in the outskirts of Padang Panjang city. Inside the complex, students, both male and female, do their learning activities everyday. They live there twenty four hours a day. In order to be able to study maximally, the management provides services, including laundry and cookery. Furthermore, there is a kiosk inside the complex in which santri can find their daily necessities, so that they do not need to go out of complex.

Sekolah Serambi Mekkah implements a curriculum adopted from MONE for secular courses and from MORA for religious courses, with a few adjustments to be fit with pesantren life. For secular courses, the entire curriculum of MONE is taught in the school, but its proportion is only 70% of the total curriculum, while the remaining 30% is the curriculum of MORA. With such a composition, this school is able not only to teach the entire courses developed by MONE, but also to teach religious courses even in more detail, such as h}di>th, ta>ri>kh, fiqh, imla>, Arabic, al-Qur’a>n, etc. The leader of the school and the teaching staff said that they have been still seeking an ideal composition of curriculum for Serambi Makkah. By implementing boarding school system, they have more extra hours to spend with additional courses. It is during these extra hours that religious courses are educated. In this regard, the pesantren has an opportunity to teach religious courses so intensively that the nuance of pesantren can be felt quite strongly.

Similar to SMA students in general, the male students of SMA Boarding School Serambi Makkah wear uniform of short-sleeves white shirt and grey pantaloons. But the female students wear long-sleeves shirt, long skirt, and veil. Although not quite clear, attributes of neo-salafi group can be seen in the school. For example, the teachers wear baju koko (long-sleeves collarless shirt) and gamis (robe). Furthermore, male teachers let their beard grows. Title usta>dz is attributed to male teacher, while female teacher is called umi. Another attribute is separation between male and female during teaching-learning process, prayer in the mosque, and in student organization. In addition, extracurricular activities are organized in such a way to avoid direct contact and interaction between male and female students. Moreover, they employ scripturalistic approach in understanding religious teachings.

Although the institution is very popular in Padang Panjang city even in West Sumatra, mainly because of its luxurious complex, only a small percentage of the students come from the city. Most of the students are from other regions outside West Sumatra, like Palembang, Bengkulu, and Jambi. There is a balanced composition in number between male and female students. All the students live in dormitory 24 hours a day. The students are not allowed to leave the complex. In this regard, there is an agreement between the leader of Serambi Makkah and parent which states that only one family member of the students is permitted to bring the student home during semester break. The name of the appointed family member, called wali, is registered during the enrolment process. Outside the break session students are also permitted to leave the complex only if accompanied by the wali. However, they are not allowed to leave the town.

The above explanation shows a number of variants of sekolah Islam in Indonesia. Although its emergence was in the course of the rise of religious ghi>rah (enthusiasm) among Muslim society, but sekolah Islam vary in terms of religious ideology affiliation. It depends on the figures or religious group who become the initiators. Sekolah Islam Al-Azhar seems to be affiliated to Muhammadiyah’s ideology, and Madania is in line with Islamic neo-modernism. Meanwhile, Serambi Mekkah is close to the ideology of neo-salafi. The number of variants could be more than three, since Sekolah Islam has now been growing in number in big cities throughout Indonesia.

Public Madrasah: Islamic Education by State

The number of madrasah negeri (public Islamic school) is 7,227, representing only approximately 20% of the total number of madrasah throughout Indonesia. The management of public madrasah is under MORA’s responsibility, including building, other facilities, teaching staff, books, and salary. Public madrasah constitutes a medium employed by the government to disseminate national curriculum. In this respect, private madrasahs administered by foundations and socio-religious organizations are obliged to refer to public schools in terms of their curriculum arrangement. To some extent, public schools become role-models for private schools.

The 1994-1995 data of MONE records 149,646 public and private elementary schools (Sekolah Dasar or SD), which enroll 26.200.023 students. While in junior secondary level (Sekolah Menengah Pertama or SMP) the number is 19.442 with 6.392.417 students. On the other hand, MORA supervises 24.232 Islamic elementary schools (Madrasah Ibtidaiyah or MI), consisting of public (607) and private (23.625) madrasahs, both of which enroll 3.521.836 students. Meanwhile, at junior secondary level (Madrasah Tsanawiyah or MTs), the data of MORA report that there are 8.129 (582 public and 7.547 private) schools, which enroll 1.353.229 students. These above reports confirm the significance of madrasah and MORA in education, let alone the development of Islam in Indonesia.

As far as the modernization of Islamic education in Indonesia is concerned, public Islamic schools have gone through interesting development. Although still emphasizing on religious courses in certain fields, the bigger portion is given to secular courses, especially in madrasah negeri. The process began in 1970s when MORA was led by Mukti Ali (1923-2004). By then, MORA attempted intensively to make madrasah to become part of national education. An intensive negotiation between MORA and other related departments resulted in the issuance of a Joint Decree (Surat Keputusan Bersama or SKB) between Minister of Religious Affairs, Minister of Education and Culture, and Minister of Home Affairs — well-known as SKB Tiga Menteri — No. 6, 1975 and No. 037/U/1975. It is by the issuance of the Decree that the position of madrasah began to be recognized as the same level as secular schools administered by MONE. It should be noted that according to the Law No. 4, 1950, the grading system of madrasah is the same as that in secular schools. Accordingly, Madrasah Ibtidaiyah (MI), Madrasah Tsanawiyah (MTs) and Madrasah Aliyah (MA) are respectively the same levels as Sekolah Dasar (SD), Sekolah Menengah Pertama (SMP) and Sekolah Menengah Umum (SMU).

The SKB stipulates three points: (1) the graduate certificate of madrasah of all levels would be recognized equally to those of secular school; and (2) madrasah graduates are eligible to continue their study in secular schools. These two points have changed the substantial status of madrasah. Madrasah graduates have now equal opportunity with their counterpart from secular schools to be registered in secular schools, and vise versa. However, in order to be equal to secular school, madrasah should carry out point (3), i.e. that the curriculum of madrasah should consist of 70% secular courses and 30% religious courses.

It is due to the third point that a bitter critique was aroused from Muslim community. In this respect, Mukti Ali, a figure behind the SKB, became the target of the critique and even anger. As shown by Munhanif (1999: 314-315), Mukti Ali was accused to destroy Islamic education institution, which rooted in Indonesian Islam. However, the idea of SKB Tiga Menteri was eventually accepted, since it contributes significantly towards the development of madrasah. By the SKB, MORA started to rearrange the madrasah, such as transforming a number of madrasah to belong officially to MORA, or to become public madrasah. Although the number of public madrasah is still limited and far less than that of secular school, but the issuance of the SKB shows that MORA have made a significant political measures. From then on, a number of madrasahs have received subsidy, a financial support from the government that previously has only been enjoyed by secular school under MONE.

The integration process of madrasah into national education system gained momentum in 1989 with the issuance of Education Law No. 2 of 1989, concerning National Education System (UUSPN). The issuance of the Law was monumental for the development of madrasah. Through this Law, the position of madrasah and Islamic educational institutions in general was reaffirmed as inherent part of national education system. Accordingly, madrasah bears the responsibility to participate in completing the nine-year compulsory education. In addition, the Law asserts that religion becomes compulsory course that should be taught in schools from elementary to university levels.

Those developments have made public madrasah regarded as great achievement by MORA, but a few Muslim groups are not satisfied with them. For MORA, public madrasah, by adopting the combination of both secular and religious courses, is an ideal form of Islamic educational institution in Indonesia. The modernization of Muslim community, especially in rural areas, would only be possible through public madrasah. Moreover, the institution plays significant role in defending and maintaining Islamic values among Muslim community. However, pesantren community regards public madrasah as being too secular, making it incapable of producing Muslim cadres, let alone ulama>’. Moreover, other Muslim group is of an opinion that public madrasah is not able to fulfill their aspiration to produce Muslims who master Iptek and Imtaq at the same time.

Apart from the critiques, public madrasah has played pivotal role in the development of madrasah in Indonesia. It is through public madrasah that MORA is able to execute national curriculum standardization, so that the quality assurance of education in madrasah can be implemented. In addition, public madrasah is also a medium for the government to communicate and disseminate national educational policies. Moreover, it becomes the role-model of the modernization of madrasah in Indonesia. By cluster system approach, public madrasahs have become references for private madrasahs in managing their education programs.

Maintaining Traditional Learning Method: Pesantrens within NU Traditions

As has been mentioned above, there are some traditional pesantrens, especially those developed within NU tradition, which adopt modern educational system although they do not have any organizational ties with NU. In maintaining their traditional educational system, some pesantrens in Java have initiated to adopt the madrasah system. In this respect, pesantren Tebuireng in Jombang, East Java, is a case in point. Founded by Kyai Hasyim Asy’ari (1871-1947), a well known Javanese ulama of the 20th century, the pesantren becomes a model for other pesantrens as well as the ulamas in Java. Indeed, the majority of well-known and respected pesantrens in Java are founded by the pupils of Kyai Hasyim Asy’ari. It is not surprising then to see that those pesantrens follow Tebuireng model of teaching and learning. This phenomenon is understandable, since Hasyim Asy’ari was considered a Hadratus Syaikh (the prime ulama), who possessed a central role in the tradition of ulama scholarship in Java especially with the foundation of Nahdlatul Ulama in 1926.

Tebuireng, however, is not the only pesantren which has reformed its educational system. Pesantren Krapyak in Yogyakarta is another pesantren which has done similar attempt to reform its educational system. Kyai Ali Maksum (1915-1989), the head of pesantren Krapyak, was known as a modernist ulama. He also integrated madrasah system into pesantren which later became the main teaching and learning activities in pesantren. In addition, it is important to mention the other two pesantrens which have conducted educational reform by adopting madrasah system into pesantren, and by including non-Islamic subjects into pesantren curriculum. The two pesantrens under discussion are Pesantren Tambak Beras lead by Kyai Hasbullah and Pesantren Rejoso in Jombang headed by Kyai Tamim, both of which are located in East Java.

Following socio-religious changes, modernization and Islamic reform, Islamic education reform has become common discourse during the 20th century Islam in Indonesia. The ulama of pesantrens, who are known as the preservers of traditions, have started to change the traditional system of education and adopted the modern system, i.e., madrasah. In accordance with that shift, the goal of education itself changed. In this respect, Pesantren Tebuireng is a case in point. Instead of merely educating the future ‘ulamas, the goal of teaching and learning in Pesantren Tebuireng, as stated by Zamakhsyari Dhofier, is directed towards wider aims, namely to educate and to prepare the students of the pesantren to become ulama-intellectual (ulama who master non-Islamic knowledge) and intellectual-ulama (intellectuals in non-Islamic knowledge who master Islamic knowledge). This goal is in line with that of modernist Muslims whose aim of education is also to create “intellectual Muslims.”

In spite of differences of religious understanding between the ulama of pesantren and the reformists, yet they agree on one thing, i.e., the goal of educational system. Both groups of traditionalists and modernists pay serious attention to the reformation of Islamic educational system. In this context, both of them made similar efforts to create modern Muslims. Accordingly, madrasah has become a more widely acceptable system within Indonesian Muslims which is, later on, developed to be an established model within Islamic educational system in Indonesia. Furthermore, it is through these educational institutions that the socio-religious Islamic organizations in Indonesia have made their significant contribution to the Indonesian communities.

Non-Javanese Experiences

As has been mentioned above, a big number of traditional pesantrens are located found in Java, especially East and Central Java, and only a few are located outside Java. However, a number of traditional pesantrens are also to be found outside Java. The followings are the description of traditional pesantrens under discussion, such as pesantren Tarbiyah Islamiyah in West Sumatera, pesantren Assyadiyah in South Sulawesi and pesantren Nahdlatul Wathan (NW) in West Nusa Tenggara.

Pesantren Tarbiyah Islamiyah, West Sumatera
Pesantren Tarbiyah Islamiyah, located in Ampek Angkek, Candung, Bukit Tinggi, was established in 1908 (1307 H) by Angke Mudo Muhammad Rasul. At its very inception, the pesantren was called Surau Tangah or also named as Surau Baru Candung. Similar to other surau at that time, Surau Tangah functioned as the center for the development of Islamic teachings. The teaching and learning method employed by the surau was halaqah, a teaching method in which all the students of all ages learn directly from the kyai, since grading (leveling) system was not recognized. Indeed, Syeikh Sulaiman Arrasuli (1978-1970) — the son of Angku Mudo Muhammad Rasul and the second leader — was known as one of pesantren leaders who opposed and the criticized grading system. On May 5th 1928, with the suggestion of Syeikh Muhammad Abas and Sultan Dt Rajo Sampono, Syeikh Sulaiman Arrasuli finally decided to change halaqah system in pesantren Candung into madrasah system, a system which has been adopted by the younger generations. This madrasah is the seed of the current Tarbiyah Islamiyyah.

Having been going through long process, Tarbiyah Islamiyah applied full grading system in the early 1980s. Furthermore, it has applied the curriculum of the Ministry of Religious Affaires for MTsN and MAN since 1984. However, the new adopted curriculum was regarded too simple for the salafiyah (traditional) pesantren of Candung. Thus, the nomenclature of religious subjects is developed and deepened. The text books published by the Ministry of Religious Affaires on religious subjects are not used. Instead, the classical Arabic texts or called as “kitab kuning” are employed as textbooks in the teaching and learning in the pesantren. This may be seen as a strategy of pesantren communities to maintain their identities in the midst of globalization era.

In due course, Tarbiyah Islamiyah became more opened to the outsiders. The Tarbiyah then developed cooperation with various parties such as government and international funding institutions. In 1981/1982 the Tarbiyah developed cooperation with the Ministry of Religious Affairs to hold training for motivation and Classical Arabic textbooks teaching and to add their library collections. In 1982/1983 the Tarbiyah received other supports from MORA such as carpenter tools, sewing machines, welding tools and workshops to increase the skill of the students. Furthermore, the Tarbiyah also received other fund from Islamic Development Bank (IDB) through the Ministry of Religious Affairs.

Although frequently affirming themselves as politically neutral, it is beyond doubt that the political inclination of pesantrens under Persatuan Tarbiyah Islamiyah is twofold. It is said that when they are called as “Persatuan Tarbiyah Islamiyah”, it means that they are affiliated to Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (PPP, or Development Union Party), while those affiliated to GOLKAR (functional group) are called as “Tarbiyah Islamiyah”. It is important to mention, however, that both parties in fact have tried to attract the same constituents i.e., the students and the heads of pesantrens under Persatuan Tarbiyah Islamiyah (PERTI) organization. The alumni of pesantren Perti are spread out all over Indonesia, even in Malaysia, and they still maintain good communication and relationship among themselves.

Pesantren As’adiyah, South Sulawesi
The great mosque of Pesantren As’adiyah stands elegantly in Sengkang city, Wajo, South Sulawesi. The pesantren was founded in 1930 by K.H. Muhammad As’ad and located about 200 km from the central city of Makassar. It is interesting to note here that before the establishment of pesantren As’adiyah, most of the influential Islamic educational institutions in Sengkang were founded by Muhammadiyah and, hence, adopted modernist values. Similar to other Muhammadiyah schools, those educational institutions in Wajo were based on the concept of “HIS met de Qur’a>n”.

Muhammadiyah began to have influence in South Sulawesi in 1926, pioneered by H. Mansyur al Yamani, an Arab entrepreneur who once stayed in Yogyakarta. Two years later, in 1928, the influence of Muhammadiyah reached Wajo, and from then on its influence has become wider. It was one year later, in 1929, that the first Muhammadiyah conference in South Sulawesi was held in Sengkang, Wajo. During the conference, the strategy of education of Muhammadiyah schools was formulated and it gained momentum to be more developed in Sengkang, Wajo.

Muhammadiyah paid special attention to religious attitudes of Wajo community at that time. As an organization with modern and reformist characteristics, Muhammadiyah viewed that there were some religious attitudes of Wajo community that may be categorized as bid‘ah and khurafat, the attitudes that follow the beliefs of their ancestors such as maintaining sangkang, a place to worship the soul of their ancestors, or adongkokeng tradition, a belief that the soul of their ancestors may re-enacted to the kids which cause them sick. In facing this kind of religious phenomenon, Muhammadiyah inclined to show non-compromistic attitudes and tried to eliminate those attitudes of the community. That was exactly what happened in Wajo.

The rapid development of Muhammadiyah became a factor for the revival of the traditional ulamas. They tried very hard to establish traditional Islamic educational institutions. In this context, the role of K.H. Muhammad As’ad becomes significant. With the suggestions from several ulamas in Wajo who visited him in Makkah when they performed hajj (pilgrimage), K.H. Muhammad As’ad, who stayed and studied in Makkah at that time, then established an Islamic traditional educational institution in 1930 as the pioneer for the foundation of pesantren As’adiyah.

The efforts of K.H. Muhammad As’ad to initiate the establishment of traditional pesantren received supports from Matoa Wajo and his relatives who viewed from the beginning that the educational institutions developed by Muhammadiyah did not accommodate local cultures. According to the King of Wajo, the efforts of K.H. Muhammad As’ad will create a balance to what Muhammadiyah had done in the community. It was expected that the traditional educational institutions will be more accommodative to the local traditions of the community.

In May 1930, Madrasatul Arabiyatul Islamiyyah (MAI) was founded. From the outset, MAI applied pesantren model which fully taught tafsir (Qur’a>nic Exegesis), tauhid (Islamic Theology), fiqh (Islamic Law), akhlaq (Ethics), tasawuf (Islamic Mysticism) and Arabic language. The method of teaching and learning is called mangaji tudang (halaqah system), in which a religious teacher holds learning gathering at his home attended by some people who came from Sengkang as well as other villages in Wajo.

In 1931, MAI initiated to have formal educational system which was divided into two levels, i.e. Madrasah Ibtidaiyah and Madrasah Tsanawiyah. Additionally, there was special class for cadres of ulama signed up by senior students who were considered to be potential to be the head of pesantrens. The curriculum of the pesantren was developed by K.H Muhammad As’ad himself and consists of 100% religious subjects. The percentage of religious subject adopted by the pesantren may be seen from two perspectives; first, the religious situation of the community in Sengkang forced him to teach religious subjects as much as possible; second, the increasing tension between religious schools founded by religious figures and public schools held by the colonial government which resulted in the rejection of religious schools to include non-religious subjects into their curriculum. This measure was taken to avoid colonial-bias.

The shift in curriculum and orientation of MAI began to take place in 1953, a year after K.H. Muhammad As’ad passed away. With the suggestion of the new head of the pesantren, K.H. Daud Ismail, MAI was altered into Pesantren As’adiyah. It is clear that the new name was taken from the name of K.H. Muhammad As’ad, to honor him as the founder of that Islamic institution.

It was under the leadership of K.H. Daud Ismail that the modernization of pesantren began. Pesantren was not managed as a private institution owned by kyai. Instead, it was administered by a yayasan (foundation), which has formulated its regulations to run the pesantren and to be regularly evaluated in the conferences. Pesantren As’adiyah is distinctive from other similar institutions for its organizational structure, which consists of Central Board (PB), the highest rank in the structure of the pesantren. It is under the Board that As’adiyah foundation organizes its learning mechanism either in schools, madrasahs or pesantrens.

The second generation of pesantren As’adiyah realized that they have to face challenges different from those of the first generation of K.H. Muhammad As’ad. Thus, in 1956 pesantren As’adiyah opened another new model of school, i.e., Madrasah Menengah Pertama (MMP, or Islamic Junior High School) and Madrasah Menengah Atas (MMA, or Islamic Senior High School) in 1959. The two schools are different from the existing schools such as Madrasah Ibtidaiyah and Madrasah Tsanawiyah. The new model of schools adopted 60% of religious subjects and 40% of non-religious subjects such as Indonesian language, English, economics, geography, math, natural sciences etc.

The new trend to develop the more opened model of pesantren, which accommodates non-religious knowledge has been continuing for generations. Under the leadership of K.H.M. Yunus Martan (1961-1986), for example, the pesantren offered another new program, i.e., six-year training program for religious teachers. Furthermore, it was during this period that pesantren As’adiyah opened other educational institutions such as kindergarten, primary school and As’adiyah Islamic University.

Pesantren As’adiyah, therefore, may be viewed as representative of pesantren salaf (traditional pesantren) which is accommodative to the new changes and development surrounding it. One may say that the following proverb” almuhafazah ‘ala al qadim al salih wa al akh zu bi al jadid al aslah” (Preserving the good existing order and adopting the new one which is better) is an appropriate expression to describe the characteristics and inclinations of Pesantren As’adiyah.

Continue Here.. New Trend of Islamic Education in Indonesia [Part II]
Resource

Pendidikan Islam pada hakekatnya merupakan aktivitas pendidikan yang dilakukan untuk mengejawantahkan nilai-nilai Islam. Pendidikan Islam juga dipahami sebagai sistem pendidikan yang dikembangkan dari dan disemangati atau dijiwai oleh ajaran dan nilai-nilai Islam. Subtansi dari pendidikan Islam adalah nilai-nilai Islam, yakni bagaimana nilai-nilai Islam menjadi dasar sistem dan aktivitas pendidikan dan pada saat yang bersamaan nilai-nilai itu terejawantahkan dalam keseluruhan aktivitas pendidikan itu.
Islam sebagai pandangan hidup yang mendasarkan nilai-nilai ilahiyah baik yang termuat dalam al-Qur’an maupun Sunnah Rasul, diyakini memiliki kebenaran mutlak yang bersifat transenden, universal dan eternal (abadi). Dari sekian banyak nilai yang terkandung dalam sumber ajaran Islam ini, nilai yang fundamental adalah nilai tauhid. Ismail Raji al-Rafuqi, menformulasikan bahwa kerangka Islam berarti memuat teori-teori, metode, prinsip dan tujuan tunduk pada esensi Islam yaitu Tauhid. Dengan demikian pendidikan Islam dalam bentuk sistem dan aktivitas penyelenggarannya harus mengacu pada nilai fundamental tersebut.
Nilai-nilai tersebut memberikan arah dan tujuan dalam proses pendidikan dan memberikan motivasi dalam aktivitas pendidikan. konsepsi tujuan pendidikan yang mendasarkan pada nilai Tauhid menurut an-Nahlawi disebut ”ahdafur Rabbani”, yakni tujuan yang bersifat ketuhanan yang seharunya menjadi dasar dalam kerangka berfikir, bertindak dan pandangan hidup dalam sistem dan aktivitas pendidikan.
Menurut Omar Muhammad Attoumy Asy Syaebani, tujuan pendidikan harus memenuhi syarat: (a) sifat yang bercorak ahlak dan agama, (b) menyeluruh, mencakup segala aspek pribadi pelajar dan aspek perkembangan dalam masyarakat, (c) sifat keseimbangan, (d) sifat realistik dan dapat dilaksanakan.
Sejalan dengan syarat tujuan pendidikan di atas, al-Abrasyi menyatakan bahwa tujuan pendidikan adalah mempersiapkan manusia supaya hidup dengan sempurnah dan bahagia, mencintai tanah air, tegap jasmaninya, sempurna budi pekertinya, teratur pikirannya, halus perasaannya, mahir dalam pekerjaannya, manis tutur katanya baik dengan lisan atau tulisan.
Makna dan tujuan pendidikan menurut Musthafa al-Maraghy terkandung dalam istilah al-tarbiyah, yang meliputi tarbiyat khalqiyat, yaitu penciptaan, pembinaan dan pengembangan jasmani peserta didik agar dapat dijadikan sarana bagi pengembangan jiwanya, tarbiyat diniyat tahzibiyat, yaitu pembinaan jiwa manusia dan kesempurnaannya melalui petunjuk wahyu ilahi. Dengan demikian pendidikan yang terkandung dalam al-tarbiyah mencakup berbagai kebutuhan manusia, baik kebutuhan dunia akherat, serta kebutuhan terhadap kelestarian diri sendiri, sesamanya, alam lingkungan dan relasinya dengan Tuhan.

Dipublikasikan Oleh:
M. Asrori Ardiansyah, M.Pd
Pendidik di Malang

Sumber: www.kabar-pendidikan.blogspot.com, www.arminaperdana.blogspot.com http://grosirlaptop.blogspot.com


Pengertian kurikulum pendidikan agama Islam sebenarnya tidak jauh berbeda dengan kurikulum secara umum, perbedaan hanya terletak pada sumber pelajarannya saja. Sebagaimana yang diutarakan oleh Abdul Majid dalam bukunya Pembelajaran Agama islam Berbasis Kompetensi, mengatakan bahwa kurikulum Pendidikan Agama Islam adalah rumusan tentang tujuan, materi, metode dan evaluasi pendidikan dan evaluasi pendidikan yang bersumber pada ajaran agama Islam.

Pendidikan Agama Islam adalah upaya sadar dan terencana dalam menyiapkan peserta didik untuk mcengenal, memahami, menghayati, hingga mengimani ajaran Islam, dibarengi dengan tuntunan untuk menghormati penganut agama lain dalam hubungannya dengan kerukunan antar umat beragama hingga terwujud kesatuan dan persatuan bangsa.
Menurut Zakiyah Daradjat pendidikan agama Islam adalah suatu usaha untuk membina dan mengasuh peserta didik agar senantiasa dapat memahami ajaran Islam secara menyeluruh.

Sedangkan Muhaimin mengemukakan bahwa kurikulum Pendidikan Agama Islam (PAI) dapat diartikan sebagai (1) kegiatan menghasilakan kurikulum PAI; atau (2) proses yang mengaitkan komponen dengan yang lainnya untuk menghasilkan kurikulum PAI yang lebih baik; dan/atau (3) kegiatan penyusunan (desain), pelaksanaan, penilaian dan penyempurnaan kurikulum PAI.

Dipublikasikan Oleh:
M. Asrori Ardiansyah, M.Pd
Pendidik di Malang


Islamic Education in Indonesia has had a long history in the archipelago. Although unsytematic, it has in its various iterations, served Muslims communities since the early coming of Islam to the area. According to Saefuddin, Islamic education in Indonesia started from a forum of Islamic instructions (pengajian) held by the carrier and preacher of Islam in citizens’ houses mosques. The forum was then consolidated into pesantren and madrasah (Saefuddin, 1995: 237). The Pillars of Islamic Education Seen from its stakeholders, at least five pillars of Islamic education in Indonesia can be listed: Pesantren, Madrasah, Islamic schools under Muslim organizations, Islamic Integrated Schools, and Majelis Taklim . Before the twentieth century, pesantren were the only formal institutions of Islamic education in the archipelago, mainly on Java Island (Lukens-Bull, 2004: 299).

Pesantren were identified as an Islamic education system whose sole focus was on Islamic curricula. In pesantren santri (students) from various backgrounds studied Islamic values and teachings from the Kyai (teacher). Like the pesantren, madrasah were also know for their core focus on center for the instruction of Islamic teaching and Arabic language. But unlike the pesantren, where the Kyai is the one who has the authority to teach students and determine the curricula, madrasah were usually managed by a group of Muslims, and one who delivered Islamic teaching, called guru or Ustadz. “Secular sciences” such as natural sciences, math, and other social and humanistic sciences were not taught in Indonesia until the Dutch government introduced school on the basis of the “Western educational system.”

Responding to the fact that only a few native Indonesians were able to study in Dutch schools, a number of nationalist and Muslim organizations endeavoured to transfer and combine the Dutch educational system with an Islamic and cultural-based one. From a Javanese-nationalist front, Ki Hajar Dewantara established Taman Siswa, and from Islamic groups, K.H. Ahmad Dahlan founded Muhammadiyah, by which the classical system was introduced to the Muslim community. After the independence of Indonesia, the Dutch system was adopted by the Ministry of Education and Culture (MOEC), currently Ministry of National Education (MONE), under a system called public schools, and the madrasah was developed by the Ministry of Religious Affairs (MORA). MONE administers public education from the six years of primary education called SD, the three years of junior secondary called SMP, the three years of senior secondary known as SMU, to the higher education such as Universities and Polytechnical schools MORA administers Madrasah from primary to higher MI (six years elementary), MTs (three years junior secondary), MA (three years senior secondary), and STAIN/IAIN/UIN (four to five year universities). The difference between the public schools and the madrasah in terms of Islamic education is that the former provide no less more? than 2 hours of religious (Islamic) education per week, whereas the latter trying to combine both religious and secular sciences, provide their students almost 30% Islamic teaching and 70% “secular” sciences. Some programs even provide 70% Islamic teaching and 30% secular sciences. Unlike the pesantren, public schools, and the madrasah, Islamic schools run by Muslim organizations, such as Muhammadiyah, Al Ma’arif of Nahdhatul Ulama, PIRI of Ahmadiyah, and many others, are private schools based on the “secular system” of the public schools only with more elements of Islamic teachings. The quantity and quality of their Islamic educations is however still less than in pesantren and madrasah.

Such schools also refer to MONE policy and administration. In addition, the schools do not try to integrate Islamic values in their secular sciences as in the madrasah. As noted by Azra (1999), MORA tried to gather Muslim experts in order to develop curricula that integrated Islamic values in all secular sciences. The policy was implemented as part of a strategy to internalize Islamic values in madrasah, so Islamic teaching would function not only as a symbol as in many Islamic Schools. The coming of reformation in 1998 unlocked the public aspiration of Muslim groups that previously walked under ground in the New Order era.

A number of young Muslims who were dissatisfied with both the schools under MONE and MORA as well as the pesantren, most of them Tarbiyah activists, introduced Islamic integrated schools, called TKIT, SDIT, SMPIT, and SMAIT. These schools combine Islamic and secular systems in a more systematic way. For example, the schools reject Darwin’s theory of evolution and prefer creationism in their Biology classrooms. Unlike previous schools that are private and public, all Islamic integrated schools are private and introduce a full-day school system that meets the needs of new urban Muslim societies who are overwhelmed by their daily business and work.

Although the tuition fee of the these schools is more expensive than the others, for the new urban Muslims, sending their children to a full-day Islamic Integrated school makes them feel safe from the huge mass of information and rumors of juvenile delinquencies found in many regular schools. In addition to the formal Islamic education run by the pesantren, the madrasah, and other Islamic schools, there is another pillar of Islamic education which is community-based and more informal than the other. This kind of Islamic educations called Majelis Ta’lim. Majelis Ta’lim differs from previous Islamic education systems that focus on student cohorts; the audience and participants of the Majlis Ta’lim are mostly women from mother cohorts.

Religious Diversity in Indonesia Indonesia is an archipelago known for its cultural and social diversity. With more than 200,000 islands, fewer than 30% of which are inhabited, and more than 300 different ethnicities all with their own cultural practices and traditions, Indonesia is the world’s largest archipelago and the fourth most populated nation. Politically, although Indonesia is neither a secular nor a theocratic state, the government of the state has a significant power to control religious life through its apparatus. The latest Indonesian census shows that among its 220 million people, 88 percent are Muslim.

Other religious groups include Protestants 5%, Roman Catholics 3%, Hindus 2%, Buddhists 1%, and others 1% (Boyle and Sheen, 2001: 200-208). Although Muslims are the majority, their distribution is not evenly spread. Some regions, mainly in eastern Indonesia, have almost equal numbers of Christians and Muslims, such as in Maluku, Manado, and many others. Some parts even have Christian majorities, such as in Nusa Tenggara Timur and Papua, and, of course, the island of Bali which is over 90% Hindu. Responses of Islamic Education to the Religious Diversity in Indonesia Theologically, non Muslims were seen as the “other” by Muslims, based on the classical construction of Islamic teaching.

The construction of fiqh and ilmu kalam on non-Muslims, for example, denotes them as musyrik or kafir. The problem is how Muslim, should deal with the “other” in their every day lives. Should Muslims regard non-Muslims as their enemy to be defeated or as those who should be converted to Islam? The Qur’an actually appreciates religious diversity on earth. Some Qur’anic verses clearly describe that Allah SWT does not intend to create people in a single identity, as stated in QS 10: 99 and 2: 256 below: And if thy Lord had pleased, all those who are in earth would have believed, all of them. Wilt thou then force men till they are believers? There is no compulsion in religion–the right way is indeed clearly distinc from error. So whoever disbelieves in the devil and believes in Allah, he indeed lays hold on the firmest handle which shall never break. And Allah is hearing knowing.

The Qur’an even recognizes religious pluralism, as stated in QS 2: 62 Surely those who believe, and those who are Jews, and the Christians, and the Sabians, whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day and does good, they have their reward with their Lord, and there is no fear for them, nor shall they grieve. Although the Qur’an definitely describes the availability of religious pluralism, different interpretations of the verses appear among various Muslim groups, including Islamic education stake holders. A number of Muslim groups appreciates the verses and develops an inclusive, even pluralist, point of view; but some other groups interpret the verses differently and develop exclusive perspectives.

Different interpretations would then lead them to have distinct points view and attitudes toward non- Muslims and the reality of religious diversity. Briefly speaking, considering the fact that Indonesia is full of diversity, religious and otherwise, each pillar of Islamic education has come up with different responses. Some of them definitely understand that diversity is part of sunnatullah, so they develop educational systems curricula and content to teach their students in order to be ready to live together in a plural society. Such an opinion mostly holds true for madrasah under the auspices of MORA and the pesantrens. For example, one of the subject being studied in the religious program of Madrasah Aliyah is Comparative Religion.

In the State Institutes of Islamic Studies as well as State Islamic University, Comparative Religion is even a Department under the faculty of Ushuluddin. Some pesantren have also developed programs in interreligious dialogue and their Kyai actively engage in interfaith institutions as in Pesantren Nurul Ummahat Kota Gede Yogyakarta. In addition, a number of pesantren alumni are not hesitant to become involved in Non-Governmental Organizations working on interfaith activities and promoting toleration among religions. It should be noted, however, that not all pesantren have developed an inclusive point of view toward non-Muslims. Some of them, mainly the pesantren under the influences of the Wahhabis of Saudi Arabia and connected to ideological Salafis, have tended to develop exclusive perspectives.

How about Islamic education in private and public schools under MONE? Due to their limited hours for Islamic education in public schools, only 2 hours a week, it is difficult to classify which perspective developed in the schools. Nevertheless, because the curricula developed in the school is “controlled” by the state, it is easy to assume that Islamic education in public schools promotes national unity and appreciates differences. In addition, the mixed gender and religious background of student in every class is a good media to teach students how to behave with each other regardless of their religious background. The schools, then, can be plural landscapes providing students good opportunities to deal with people from various religious backgrounds. The climate of religious diversity is difficult to find in Islamic Schools administrated by certain Muslim organizations, especially those that admit and educate only Muslim students, such as Islamic Integrated Schools.

Facing the Future: What should Islamic Education do in the era of religious diversity? Faced with the era of multiculturalism and the problem of religious diversity, Islamic education should: first, introduce contemporary issues that the Muslim community deals with every day in addition to the explanation of classical Islamic teaching. The students of Islamic education, therefore, should also be introduced to a social and humanistic approach, such as psychology, sociology, and anthropology. Psychological knowledge would make students empathetic to other people’s problems. Sociological perspectives could lead students to be sympathetic toward minority groups. And anthropological approaches could introduce students to the issue of interaction between culture and religion.

Second, the goal of Islamic teaching should be directed to problem solving on the basis of human-to-human relations. In this light, the historical dimension of Islamic teaching should be emphasized to students instead of merely the doctrinal one. Emphasizing the historical dimension of Islamic teaching would lead Muslim students to appreciate the differences, noting that Islam lives among various religions and beliefs. In this regard, it is imperative to emphasize the importance of religious sensibility to the students. Amidst the high tension of discourse on the prophet caricature as well as the Pope’s controversial speech as, the students of Islamic education should able to respond to the issues wisely and strategically.

Instead of angery judging western society as barbaric, telling the publishers or the editor of the news/paper that they have humiliated Muslims would have been an effective strategy. In the case of the Pope’s speech, in my opinion, giving him forgiveness would strengthen the impression that Islam is religion of peace. After massive Muslim protests around the world to the publication of the Prophet caricatures by the Jlllands Posten of Denmark and the Pope’s refusal to ask for forgiveness for his blunder, it’s clear that the lack of “feeling of other people” or religious sensibility is not only the problem of Islamic education and community but also the problem of people around the world.

Third, Islamic teaching that was previously dominated by deductive narration, which is more textual, should be contextualized with what Muslim communities face in the contemporary world in terms of society, politic, economy, culture, and so forth. Islamic education, therefore, should develop the possibility of integration and interconnection among the tradition of text (Nash), science, and philosophy.

Fourth, Islamic education that is currently criticized for its emphasis on the cognitive dimension should also focus on other aspects of students affective and psychomotor dimensions. This means that Islamic education should not only strive to increase students intelligence but should drive them to be spiritually and morally healthy. In the context of religious diversity and other multicultural aspects, Islamic education should not only dedicate its vision and mission to spread “individual morality” but also “public morality”. The latter type of morality seems to be more important considering that it is connected to the structural reality of social, economic, cultural, and political life.

In sum, Islamic education should actively engage in contemporary issues, should deal with social and humanistic sciences, should be able to contextualize its normative teaching, should be directed to problem-solving on the basis of mutual human relationships, and should broaden its vision to spread public morality.

References

Abdullah, Amin. Pendidikan Agama Era Multkultural Multi religious. Jakarta: PSAP, 2005).

Ali, Mualana Muhammad. The Holy Qur’an with English Translation and Commentary. Ohio: Ahmadiyya Anjuman Isha’at Islam Lahore Inc., 2002.

Azra, Azumardi. “The Rise of Muslim Elite Schools: A New Pattern of “Santrinization” in Indonesia”, Al Jami’ah. Journal of Islamic Studies, No: 64/XII/1999.

Boyle, Kevin, and Juliet Sheen, (eds.). Freedom of Religious Belief: A Word Report. London & New York: Routledge, 2001.

Chrizin, Muhammad, et.al. Modul Pengembangan Pesantren untuk Tokoh Masyarakat. Yogyakarta: Peskadiabuma, Program pasca sarjana UIN Sunan Kalijaga, 2006).

Lukens-Bull, Ronald. ”Pendidikan Pesantren dan Harmoni Agama: Latar Belakang, Visi dan Misi.” in Alef Theria Wasim, et. Al. (eds.). Harmoni Kehidupan Beragama: Problem, Praktik & Pendidikan. Yogyakarta: Oasis Publisher, 2005.

Saifuddin, A.M. ”Konsep Pendidikan Agama: Sebuah Pendekatan Integratif Inovatif,” in Endang Basri Ananda, 70 Tahun Prof DR. H.M. Rasyidi. (Jakarta: Harian Umum Pelita, 1985).

A paper presented in the Open Forum held by USINDO, Washington, November, 21, 2006.

Professor of Islamic Studies in The State Islamic University of Sunan Kalijaga, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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